There is something special and awe-inspiring about watching new land form. This is what is now happening in Hawai'i as its Kīlauea volcano erupts. Lava is reaching the ocean and building land while producing spectacular plumes of steam. These eruptions are hugely important for the creation of new land. But they are also dangerous.
From the Boston twang to Valley girl slang, humans often develop distinct accents based on their location or social group. Now, researchers have found that whales do the same. A new study from the Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution (WHOI) has found that short-finned pilot whales living off the coast of Hawai'i have their own sorts of vocal dialects. The groups of pilot whales all use the same habitat, but have different vocal repertoires. This means that they're purposely not associating with each other, says WHOI researcher Amy Van Cise.
Since the beginning of May 2018, the Kilauea volcano on Hawai'i is erupting. First a cloud of fragmented older lava, volcanic ash and vapor rose from the Pu'u'O'o crater on the summit, magma then migrated to the flanks, opening a series of fissures from where now lava is pouring out. Around five weeks into the eruption, some residents of the town of Kalapana reported small, green crystals to be found on the ground, soon speculating that the crystals rained out from the eruption column or the lava fountains of Kilauea. The green crystals are olivine, a very common magnesium-iron-silicate mineral to be found in magmatic rocks. Olivine crystals of high quality are used also in jewelry.
"The Executive Order means that thousands of individuals across the United States and in Hawai'i who have immediate family members living in the affected countries will now be unable to receive visits from those persons or to be reunited with them in the United States," the complaint says. "It means that universities, employers, and other institutions throughout the United States and in Hawai'i will be unable to recruit or to welcome qualified individuals from the six designated countries. It threatens certain non-citizens within the United States and in Hawai'i with the possibility that they will be unable to travel abroad and return – for instance, because their visa only permits them one entry, or because their visa will have expired during the time the Executive Order is still in place."