Invariant Risk Minimization

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce Invariant Risk Minimization (IRM), a learning paradigm to estimate invariant correlations across multiple training distributions. To achieve this goal, IRM learns a data representation such that the optimal classifier, on top of that data representation, matches for all training distributions. Through theory and experiments, we show how the invariances learned by IRM relate to the causal structures governing the data and enable out-of-distribution generalization.


Design Thinking Humanizes Data Science

#artificialintelligence

The article "Cognitive Hub: The Future of Work" and the supporting infographic (see Figure 1) provides an interesting perspective on some "technology combinations" that could transform the workplace of the future, all enabled by Artificial Intelligence (AI): The infographic above is very cool and depicts a very interesting proposition. However, my concern with the proposition is that while these technology combinations could be quite powerful, the Internet of Things, Human-Machine Interfaces, Cyber physical systems and Artificial Intelligence are only enabling technologies, that is, they only give someone or something the means to do something. You still need someone or something to actually do something; to decide what to do, when to do it, where to do it, with whom to do it, how to do it, the required items to do it, etc. There is a H-U-G-E difference between enabling and doing. For example, I can enable you with an individualized diet and fitness plan that will improve your life, but the subsequent improvement in your life won't happen if you are not doing it.


Orthogonal Structure Search for Efficient Causal Discovery from Observational Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A more formal discussion explanatory variables is of high practical importance is provided in Section 2. in many disciplines. Recent work exploits stability of regression coefficients or invariance However most state of the art methods suffer from scalability properties of models across different experimental problems since they scan all potential subsets of variables conditions for reconstructing the full causal and test whether the conditional distribution of Y given graph. These approaches generally do not scale a subset of variables is invariant across all environments well with the number of the explanatory variables (Peters et al., 2016) . This search is hence exponential in and are difficult to extend to nonlinear relationships. the number of covariates; the methods, while maintaining Contrary to existing work, we propose an appealing theoretical guarantees, are thus already computationally approach which even works for observational data hard for graphs of ten variables, and get infeasible alone, while still offering theoretical guarantees for larger graphs, unless one resorts to heuristic procedures.


Automating Path Analysis for Building Causal Models from Data: First Results and Open Problems

AAAI Conferences

Those algorithms will be discussed in a later section. This paper describes a statistical discovery procedure for finding causal structure in correlational data, called path analysis lasher, 83; Li, 75] and an algorithm that builds path-analytic models automatically, given data. This work has the same goals as research in function finding and other discovery techniques, that is, to find rules, laws, and mechanisms that underlie nonexperimental data [Falkenhainer & Michalski 86; Langley et al., 87; Schaffer, 90; Zytkow et al., 90]. 1 Whereas function finding algorithms produce functional abstractions of (presumably) causal mechanisms, our algorithm produces explicitly causal models. Our work is most similar to that of Glymour et al. [87], who built the TETRAD system.


Causal deep learning teaches AI to ask why

#artificialintelligence

Deep learning techniques do a good job at building models by correlating data points. But many AI researchers believe that more work needs to be done to understand causation and not just correlation. The field of causal deep learning -- useful in determining why something happened -- is still in its infancy, and it is much more difficult to automate than neural networks. Much of AI is about finding hidden patterns in large amounts of data. Soumendra Mohanty, executive vice president and chief data analytics officer at L&T Infotech, a global IT service company, said, "Obviously, this aspect drives us to the'what,' but rarely do we go down the path of understanding the'why.'"