German voters sometimes split their ballots to give their preferred coalition extra support: They give their first vote to a direct candidate from one of the two main parties - the CDU and its Bavarian sister party CSU or the center-left Social Democrats (SPD) - and the second vote to a corresponding smaller partner such as the business-friendly Free Democrats (FDP), the left-leaning Greens, the far-left Die Linke or the far-right Alternative for Germany (AfD).
Herbert A. Simon (1978 Nobel Laureate in Economics) provides a classic treatise on complexity and the nature of objects and phenomena (aka, "artifacts"). In this text (ISBN 0-262-19374-4) he examines how human interactions with the natural world impact artifacts. Simon's legacy is perhaps captured by his work on complex systems. His thesis: "a physical symbol system has the necessary means for intelligent action" (cover). In other words, artifacts get their nature from their host systems which are "molded" by their environments (xi).
Computer-based modelling and simulation have become useful tools to facilitate humans to understand systems in different domains, such as physics, astrophysics, chemistry, biology, economics, engineering and social science. A complex system is featured with a large number of interacting components (agents, processes, etc.), whose aggregate activities are nonlinear and self-organized. Complex systems are hard to be simulated or modelled by using traditional computational approaches due to complex relationships among system components, distributed features of resources, and dynamics of environments. Meanwhile, smart systems such as multi-agent systems have demonstrated advantages and great potentials in modelling and simulating complex systems.
As you start to make robots smarter, you also in some ways make them less predictable, because they become more complex systems. Very complex systems tend to go wrong in unpredictable ways… If you're looking for a cast-iron guarantee that a robot is not going to hurt someone, it's like asking for the same guarantee with a person, and you just can't give it.
Complexity science has spread from its origins in the physical sciences into biological and social sciences (1). Increasingly, the social sciences frame policy problems from the financial system to the food system as complex adaptive systems (CAS) and urge policy-makers to design legal solutions with CAS properties in mind. What is often poorly recognized in these initiatives is that legal systems are also complex adaptive systems (2). Just as it seems unwise to pursue regulatory measures while ignoring known CAS properties of the systems targeted for regulation, so too might failure to appreciate CAS qualities of legal systems yield policies founded upon unrealistic assumptions. Despite a long empirical studies tradition in law, there has been little use of complexity science.