Most of the research on Federated Learning (FL) has focused on analyzing global optimization, privacy, and communication, with limited attention focusing on analyzing the critical matter of performing efficient local training and inference at the edge devices. One of the main challenges for successful and efficient training and inference on edge devices is the careful selection of parameters to build local Machine Learning (ML) models. To this aim, we propose a Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO)-based technique to optimize the hyperparameter settings for the local ML models in an FL environment. We evaluate the performance of our proposed technique using two case studies. First, we consider smart city services and use an experimental transportation dataset for traffic prediction as a proxy for this setting. Second, we consider Industrial IoT (IIoT) services and use the real-time telemetry dataset to predict the probability that a machine will fail shortly due to component failures. Our experiments indicate that PSO provides an efficient approach for tuning the hyperparameters of deep Long short-term memory (LSTM) models when compared to the grid search method. Our experiments illustrate that the number of clients-server communication rounds to explore the landscape of configurations to find the near-optimal parameters are greatly reduced (roughly by two orders of magnitude needing only 2%--4% of the rounds compared to state of the art non-PSO-based approaches). We also demonstrate that utilizing the proposed PSO-based technique to find the near-optimal configurations for FL and centralized learning models does not adversely affect the accuracy of the models.
The unprecedented surge of data volume in wireless networks empowered with artificial intelligence (AI) opens up new horizons for providing ubiquitous data-driven intelligent services. Traditional cloud-centric machine learning (ML)-based services are implemented by collecting datasets and training models centrally. However, this conventional training technique encompasses two challenges: (i) high communication and energy cost due to increased data communication, (ii) threatened data privacy by allowing untrusted parties to utilise this information. Recently, in light of these limitations, a new emerging technique, coined as federated learning (FL), arose to bring ML to the edge of wireless networks. FL can extract the benefits of data silos by training a global model in a distributed manner, orchestrated by the FL server. FL exploits both decentralised datasets and computing resources of participating clients to develop a generalised ML model without compromising data privacy. In this article, we introduce a comprehensive survey of the fundamentals and enabling technologies of FL. Moreover, an extensive study is presented detailing various applications of FL in wireless networks and highlighting their challenges and limitations. The efficacy of FL is further explored with emerging prospective beyond fifth generation (B5G) and sixth generation (6G) communication systems. The purpose of this survey is to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of FL applications in key wireless technologies that will serve as a foundation to establish a firm understanding of the topic. Lastly, we offer a road forward for future research directions.
Federated Learning aims to learn machine learning models from multiple decentralized edge devices (e.g. mobiles) or servers without sacrificing local data privacy. Recent Natural Language Processing techniques rely on deep learning and large pre-trained language models. However, both big deep neural and language models are trained with huge amounts of data which often lies on the server side. Since text data is widely originated from end users, in this work, we look into recent NLP models and techniques which use federated learning as the learning framework. Our survey discusses major challenges in federated natural language processing, including the algorithm challenges, system challenges as well as the privacy issues. We also provide a critical review of the existing Federated NLP evaluation methods and tools. Finally, we highlight the current research gaps and future directions.
Federated Learning (FL) is a recent approach for collaboratively training Machine Learning models on mobile edge devices, without private user data leaving the devices. The popular FL algorithm, Federated Averaging (FedAvg), suffers from poor convergence speed given non-iid user data. Furthermore, most existing work on FedAvg measures central-model accuracy, but in many cases, such as user content-recommendation, improving individual User model Accuracy (UA) is the real objective. To address these issues, we propose a Multi-Task Federated Learning (MTFL) system, which converges faster than FedAvg by using distributed Adam optimization (FedAdam), and benefits UA by introducing personal, non-federated 'patch' Batch-Normalization (BN) layers into the model. Testing FedAdam on the MNIST and CIFAR10 datasets show that it converges faster (up to 5x) than FedAvg in non-iid scenarios, and experiments using MTFL on the CIFAR10 dataset show that MTFL significantly improves average UA over FedAvg, by up to 54%. We also analyse the affect that private BN patches have on the MTFL model during inference, and give evidence that MTFL strikes a better balance between regularization and convergence in FL. Finally, we test the MTFL system on a mobile edge computing testbed, showing that MTFL's convergence and UA benefits outweigh its overhead.
Federated learning is a technique that enables distributed clients to collaboratively learn a shared machine learning model while keeping their training data localized. This reduces data privacy risks, however, privacy concerns still exist since it is possible to leak information about the training dataset from the trained model's weights or parameters. Setting up a federated learning environment, especially with security and privacy guarantees, is a time-consuming process with numerous configurations and parameters that can be manipulated. In order to help clients ensure that collaboration is feasible and to check that it improves their model accuracy, a real-world simulator for privacy-preserving and secure federated learning is required. In this paper, we introduce PrivacyFL, which is an extensible, easily configurable and scalable simulator for federated learning environments. Its key features include latency simulation, robustness to client departure, support for both centralized and decentralized learning, and configurable privacy and security mechanisms based on differential privacy and secure multiparty computation. In this paper, we motivate our research, describe the architecture of the simulator and associated protocols, and discuss its evaluation in numerous scenarios that highlight its wide range of functionality and its advantages. Our paper addresses a significant real-world problem: checking the feasibility of participating in a federated learning environment under a variety of circumstances. It also has a strong practical impact because organizations such as hospitals, banks, and research institutes, which have large amounts of sensitive data and would like to collaborate, would greatly benefit from having a system that enables them to do so in a privacy-preserving and secure manner.