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Automating Crystal-Structure Phase Mapping: Combining Deep Learning with Constraint Reasoning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Crystal-structure phase mapping is a core, long-standing challenge in materials science that requires identifying crystal structures, or mixtures thereof, in synthesized materials. Materials science experts excel at solving simple systems but cannot solve complex systems, creating a major bottleneck in high-throughput materials discovery. Herein we show how to automate crystal-structure phase mapping. We formulate phase mapping as an unsupervised pattern demixing problem and describe how to solve it using Deep Reasoning Networks (DRNets). DRNets combine deep learning with constraint reasoning for incorporating scientific prior knowledge and consequently require only a modest amount of (unlabeled) data. DRNets compensate for the limited data by exploiting and magnifying the rich prior knowledge about the thermodynamic rules governing the mixtures of crystals with constraint reasoning seamlessly integrated into neural network optimization. DRNets are designed with an interpretable latent space for encoding prior-knowledge domain constraints and seamlessly integrate constraint reasoning into neural network optimization. DRNets surpass previous approaches on crystal-structure phase mapping, unraveling the Bi-Cu-V oxide phase diagram, and aiding the discovery of solar-fuels materials.


Deep Reasoning Networks: Thinking Fast and Slow

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We introduce Deep Reasoning Networks (DRNets), an end-to-end framework that combines deep learning with reasoning for solving complex tasks, typically in an unsupervised or weakly-supervised setting. DRNets exploit problem structure and prior knowledge by tightly combining logic and constraint reasoning with stochastic-gradient-based neural network optimization. We illustrate the power of DRNets on de-mixing overlapping hand-written Sudokus (Multi-MNIST-Sudoku) and on a substantially more complex task in scientific discovery that concerns inferring crystal structures of materials from X-ray diffraction data under thermodynamic rules (Crystal-Structure-Phase-Mapping). At a high level, DRNets encode a structured latent space of the input data, which is constrained to adhere to prior knowledge by a reasoning module. The structured latent encoding is used by a generative decoder to generate the targeted output. Finally, an overall objective combines responses from the generative decoder (thinking fast) and the reasoning module (thinking slow), which is optimized using constraint-aware stochastic gradient descent. We show how to encode different tasks as DRNets and demonstrate DRNets' effectiveness with detailed experiments: DRNets significantly outperform the state of the art and experts' capabilities on Crystal-Structure-Phase-Mapping, recovering more precise and physically meaningful crystal structures. On Multi-MNIST-Sudoku, DRNets perfectly recovered the mixed Sudokus' digits, with 100% digit accuracy, outperforming the supervised state-of-the-art MNIST de-mixing models. Finally, as a proof of concept, we also show how DRNets can solve standard combinatorial problems -- 9-by-9 Sudoku puzzles and Boolean satisfiability problems (SAT), outperforming other specialized deep learning models. DRNets are general and can be adapted and expanded to tackle other tasks.


Zero Training Overhead Portfolios for Learning to Solve Combinatorial Problems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There has been an increasing interest in harnessing deep learning to tackle combinatorial optimization (CO) problems in recent years. Typical CO deep learning approaches leverage the problem structure in the model architecture. Nevertheless, the model selection is still mainly based on the conventional machine learning setting. Due to the discrete nature of CO problems, a single model is unlikely to learn the problem entirely. We introduce ZTop, which stands for Zero Training Overhead Portfolio, a simple yet effective model selection and ensemble mechanism for learning to solve combinatorial problems. ZTop is inspired by algorithm portfolios, a popular CO ensembling strategy, particularly restart portfolios, which periodically restart a randomized CO algorithm, de facto exploring the search space with different heuristics. We have observed that well-trained models acquired in the same training trajectory, with similar top validation performance, perform well on very different validation instances. Following this observation, ZTop ensembles a set of well-trained models, each providing a unique heuristic with zero training overhead, and applies them, sequentially or in parallel, to solve the test instances. We show how ZTopping, i.e., using a ZTop ensemble strategy with a given deep learning approach, can significantly improve the performance of the current state-of-the-art deep learning approaches on three prototypical CO domains, the hardest unique-solution Sudoku instances, challenging routing problems, and the graph maximum cut problem, as well as on multi-label classification, a machine learning task with a large combinatorial label space.


Learning Counterfactual Representations for Estimating Individual Dose-Response Curves

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Estimating what would be an individual's potential response to varying levels of exposure to a treatment is of high practical relevance for several important fields, such as healthcare, economics and public policy. However, existing methods for learning to estimate such counterfactual outcomes from observational data are either focused on estimating average dose-response curves, limited to settings in which treatments do not have an associated dosage parameter, or both. Here, we present a novel machine-learning framework towards learning counterfactual representations for estimating individual dose-response curves for any number of treatment options with continuous dosage parameters. Building on the established potential outcomes framework, we introduce new performance metrics, model selection criteria, model architectures, and open benchmarks for estimating individual dose-response curves. Our experiments show that the methods developed in this work set a new state-of-the-art in estimating individual dose-response curves.


AI powers autonomous materials discovery

AIHub

Members of the SARA team are pictured in Duffield Hall. From left: Duncan Sutherland, Ph.D. student in materials science and engineering; Carla Gomes, professor of computer science; Mike Thompson, professor of materials science and engineering; and Sebastian Ament, Ph.D. student in computer science. When a master chef develops a new cake recipe, she doesn't try every conceivable combination of ingredients to see which one works best. The chef uses prior baking knowledge and basic principles to more efficiently search for that winning formula. Materials scientists use a similar method in searching for novel materials with unique properties in fields such as renewable energy and microelectronics.