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Machine Learning Promoting Extreme Simplification of Spectroscopy Equipment

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The spectroscopy measurement is one of main pathways for exploring and understanding the nature. Today, it seems that racing artificial intelligence will remould its styles. The algorithms contained in huge neural networks are capable of substituting many of expensive and complex components of spectrum instruments. In this work, we presented a smart machine learning strategy on the measurement of absorbance curves, and also initially verified that an exceedingly-simplified equipment is sufficient to meet the needs for this strategy. Further, with its simplicity, the setup is expected to infiltrate into many scientific areas in versatile forms.


Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations

Science

We observe extensive variation in skin pigmentation in Africa, with lowest melanin levels observed in southern African San hunter-gatherers and highest levels in East African Nilo-Saharan pastoralists. A genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 1570 Africans identified variants significantly associated with skin pigmentation, which clustered in four genomic regions that together account for almost 30% of the phenotypic variation.


Scientists pinpoint genes for varying skin colours

Daily Mail - Science & tech

Human skin colour varies hugely, and it is often used define race. But this is a dated notion, according to the first large-scale study of the genetics of skin colour in Africans. The study found eight genetic variants in four regions of the human genome that strongly influence skin colour. Humans around the world share these genes, and they were even present in our ancient ancestors at least 900,000 years. According to one researcher involved in the study, the research'dispels a biological concept of race' that is now outdated.


Tan treatment bypasses the need for harmful sun beds

Daily Mail - Science & tech

The days of spending hours on the beach in the sun or in a tanning booth in a quest for golden-coloured skin could soon be a thing of the past. Scientists have developed a new treatment that can tan skin without exposure to harmful UV rays - and it means even those with the lightest of skins will be able to get a tan. The team has now tested the treatment on human skin, and hopes it could drastically decrease the incidence of skin cancer. Human skin treated for eight days with new treatment shows significant darkening (right). In the study, scientists developed a new skin treatment using a class of small molecules.


Erratum for the Research Article Loci associated with skin pigmentation identified in African populations

Science

The version published on 17 November incorporates subsequent proof corrections and author corrections. The text and Figures 1A and 2 were updated to reflect a revision to the melanin index (MI) formula used to analyze the data, which was changed from MI 100 A- log10[1/(x/100)] to MI 100 A- log10[1/(x/255)], where x is the value for red reflectance. Thus, the MI values shift proportionally. All results in the paper remain unchanged; the mistakes were not in the data files themselves nor in the rest of the results derived in the paper. In addition, the summary page that appeared in print on page 887 has now been updated to reflect the revisions to Figure 1.