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Elastic-InfoGAN: Unsupervised Disentangled Representation Learning in Imbalanced Data

arXiv.org Machine Learning

E LASTIC-I NFOGAN: U NSUPERVISEDD ISENTANGLED R EPRESENTATIONL EARNING IN I MBALANCEDD ATA Utkarsh Ojha 1, Krishna Kumar Singh 1, Cho-Jui Hsieh 2, and Y ong Jae Lee 1 1 University of California, Davis 2 University of California, Los Angeles A BSTRACT We propose a novel unsupervised generative model, Elastic-InfoGAN, that learns to disentangle object identity from other low-level aspects in class-imbalanced datasets. We first investigate the issues surrounding the assumptions about uniformity made by InfoGAN (Chen et al. (2016)), and demonstrate its ineffectiveness to properly disentangle object identity in imbalanced data. Our key idea is to make the discovery of the discrete latent factor of variation invariant to identity-preserving transformations in real images, and use that as the signal to learn the latent distribution's parameters. Experiments on both artificial (MNIST) and real-world (Y ouTube-Faces) datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach in imbalanced data by: (i) better disentanglement of object identity as a latent factor of variation; and (ii) better approximation of class imbalance in the data, as reflected in the learned parameters of the latent distribution. Recent deep neural network based models such as Generative Adversarial Networks (Goodfellow et al. (2014); Salimans et al. (2016); Radford et al. (2016)) and V ariational Autoen-coders (Kingma & Welling (2014); Higgins et al. (2017)) have led to promising results in generating realistic samples for high-dimensional and complex data such as images. More advanced models show how to discover disentangled representations (Y an et al. (2016); Chen et al. (2016); Tran et al. (2017); Hu et al. (2018); Singh et al. (2019)), in which different latent dimensions can be made to represent independent factors of variation (e.g., pose, identity) in the data (e.g., human faces). InfoGAN (Chen et al. (2016)) in particular, tries to learn an unsupervised disentangled representation by maximizing the mutual information between the discrete or continuous latent variables and the corresponding generated samples. For discrete latent factors (e.g., digit identities), it assumes that they are uniformly distributed in the data, and approximates them accordingly using a fixed uniform categorical distribution. Although this assumption holds true for many existing benchmark datasets (e.g., MNIST LeCun (1998)), real-word data often follows a long-tailed distribution and rarely exhibits perfect balance between the categories.


A review of machine learning applications in wildfire science and management

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Artificial intelligence has been applied in wildfire science and management since the 1990s, with early applications including neural networks and expert systems. Since then the field has rapidly progressed congruently with the wide adoption of machine learning (ML) in the environmental sciences. Here, we present a scoping review of ML in wildfire science and management. Our objective is to improve awareness of ML among wildfire scientists and managers, as well as illustrate the challenging range of problems in wildfire science available to data scientists. We first present an overview of popular ML approaches used in wildfire science to date, and then review their use in wildfire science within six problem domains: 1) fuels characterization, fire detection, and mapping; 2) fire weather and climate change; 3) fire occurrence, susceptibility, and risk; 4) fire behavior prediction; 5) fire effects; and 6) fire management. We also discuss the advantages and limitations of various ML approaches and identify opportunities for future advances in wildfire science and management within a data science context. We identified 298 relevant publications, where the most frequently used ML methods included random forests, MaxEnt, artificial neural networks, decision trees, support vector machines, and genetic algorithms. There exists opportunities to apply more current ML methods (e.g., deep learning and agent based learning) in wildfire science. However, despite the ability of ML models to learn on their own, expertise in wildfire science is necessary to ensure realistic modelling of fire processes across multiple scales, while the complexity of some ML methods requires sophisticated knowledge for their application. Finally, we stress that the wildfire research and management community plays an active role in providing relevant, high quality data for use by practitioners of ML methods.


Cross-Modal Data Programming Enables Rapid Medical Machine Learning

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Department of Biomedical Data Science, Stanford University, Stanford, California, USA Labeling training datasets has become a key barrier to building medical machine learning models. One strategy is to generate training labels programmatically, for example by applying natural language processing pipelines to text reports associated with imaging studies. We propose cross-modal data programming, which generalizes this intuitive strategy in a theoretically-grounded way that enables simpler, clinician-driven input, reduces required labeling time, and improves with additional unlabeled data. In this approach, clinicians generate training labels for models defined over a target modality (e.g. The resulting technical challenge consists of estimating the accuracies and correlations of these rules; we extend a recent unsupervised generative modeling technique to handle this cross-modal setting in a provably consistent way. Across four applications in radiography, computed tomography, and electroencephalography, and using only several hours of clinician time, our approach matches or exceeds the efficacy of physician-months of hand-labeling with statistical significance, demonstrating a fundamentally faster and more flexible way of building machine learning models in medicine. In addition to being extremely costly, these training sets are inflexible: given a new classification schema, imaging system, patient population, or other change in the data distribution or modeling task, the training set generally needs to be relabeled from scratch. One manifestation of this shift in the broader machine learning community is the increasing use of weak supervision approaches, where training data is labeled in noisier, higher-level, often programmatic ways, rather than manually by experts. We broadly characterize these methods as cross-modal weak supervision approaches, in which the strategy is to programmatically extract labels from an auxiliary modality--e.g. the unstructured text reports accompanying an imaging study--which are then used as training labels for a model defined over the target modality, e.g. These methods follow the intuition that programmatically extracting labels from the auxiliary modality can be far faster and easier than hand-labeling or deriving labels from the target modality directly.


Change-point Detection Methods for Body-Worn Video

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Body-worn video (BWV) cameras are increasingly utilized by police departments to provide a record of police-public interactions. However, large-scale BWV deployment produces terabytes of data per week, necessitating the development of effective computational methods to identify salient changes in video. In work carried out at the 2016 RIPS program at IPAM, UCLA, we present a novel two-stage framework for video change-point detection. First, we employ state-of-the-art machine learning methods including convolutional neural networks and support vector machines for scene classification. We then develop and compare change-point detection algorithms utilizing mean squared-error minimization, forecasting methods, hidden Markov models, and maximum likelihood estimation to identify noteworthy changes. We test our framework on detection of vehicle exits and entrances in a BWV data set provided by the Los Angeles Police Department and achieve over 90% recall and nearly 70% precision -- demonstrating robustness to rapid scene changes, extreme luminance differences, and frequent camera occlusions.


Free-riders in Federated Learning: Attacks and Defenses

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Free-riders in Federated Learning: Attacks and Defenses Jierui Lin, Min Du, and Jian Liu University of California, Berkeley Abstract--Federated learning is a recently proposed paradigm that enables multiple clients to collaboratively train a joint model. It allows clients to train models locally, and leverages the parameter server to generate a global model by aggregating the locally submitted gradient updates at each round. Although the incentive model for federated learning has not been fully developed, it is supposed that participants are able to get rewards or the privilege to use the final global model, as a compensation for taking efforts to train the model. Therefore, a client who does not have any local data has the incentive to construct local gradient updates in order to deceive for rewards. In this paper, we are the first to propose the notion of free rider attacks, to explore possible ways that an attacker may construct gradient updates, without any local training data. Furthermore, we explore possible defenses that could detect the proposed attacks, and propose a new high dimensional detection method called STD-DAGMM, which particularly works well for anomaly detection of model parameters. We extend the attacks and defenses to consider more free riders as well as differential privacy, which sheds light on and calls for future research in this field. I NTRODUCTION F EDERA TED learning [1], [2], [3] has been proposed to facilitate a joint model training leveraging data from multiple clients, where the training process is coordinated by a parameter server. In the whole process, clients' data stay local, and only model parameters are communicated among clients through the parameter server. A typical training iteration works as follows. First, the parameter server sends the newest global model to each client. Then, each client locally updates the model using local data and reports updated gradients to the parameter server. Finally, the server performs model aggregation on all submitted local updates to form a new global model, which has better performance than models trained using any single client's data.