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Bringing personalized learning into computer-aided question generation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper proposes a novel and statistical method of ability estimation based on acquisition distribution for a personalized computer aided question generation. This method captures the learning outcomes over time and provides a flexible measurement based on the acquisition distributions instead of precalibration. Compared to the previous studies, the proposed method is robust, especially when an ability of a student is unknown. The results from the empirical data show that the estimated abilities match the actual abilities of learners, and the pretest and post-test of the experimental group show significant improvement. These results suggest that this method can serves as the ability estimation for a personalized computer-aided testing environment.


A Contextual-Bandit Approach to Online Learning to Rank for Relevance and Diversity

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Online learning to rank (LTR) focuses on learning a policy from user interactions that builds a list of items sorted in decreasing order of the item utility. It is a core area in modern interactive systems, such as search engines, recommender systems, or conversational assistants. Previous online LTR approaches either assume the relevance of an item in the list to be independent of other items in the list or the relevance of an item to be a submodular function of the utility of the list. The former type of approach may result in a list of low diversity that has relevant items covering the same aspects, while the latter approaches may lead to a highly diversified list but with some non-relevant items. In this paper, we study an online LTR problem that considers both item relevance and topical diversity. We assume cascading user behavior, where a user browses the displayed list of items from top to bottom and clicks the first attractive item and stops browsing the rest. We propose a hybrid contextual bandit approach, called CascadeHybrid, for solving this problem. CascadeHybrid models item relevance and topical diversity using two independent functions and simultaneously learns those functions from user click feedback. We derive a gap-free bound on the n-step regret of CascadeHybrid. We conduct experiments to evaluate CascadeHybrid on the MovieLens and Yahoo music datasets. Our experimental results show that CascadeHybrid outperforms the baselines on both datasets.


Learning Concept Graphs from Online Educational Data

Journal of Artificial Intelligence Research

This paper addresses an open challenge in educational data mining, i.e., the problem of automatically mapping online courses from different providers (universities, MOOCs, etc.) onto a universal space of concepts, and predicting latent prerequisite dependencies (directed links) among both concepts and courses. We propose a novel approach for inference within and across course-level and concept-level directed graphs. In the training phase, our system projects partially observed course-level prerequisite links onto directed concept-level links; in the testing phase, the induced concept-level links are used to infer the unknown course-level prerequisite links. Whereas courses may be specific to one institution, concepts are shared across different providers. The bi-directional mappings enable our system to perform interlingua-style transfer learning, e.g. treating the concept graph as the interlingua and transferring the prerequisite relations across universities via the interlingua. Experiments on our newly collected datasets of courses from MIT, Caltech, Princeton and CMU show promising results.


How To Join The Applied AI Revolution

#artificialintelligence

Have you ever wondered whom to thank for some of the modern conveniences you might have started taking for granted, like Siri, Cortana or Alexa (assuming you agree these are conveniences)? The people at the Association for Computing Machinery (ACM) decided to thank Geoffrey Hinton, Yoshua Bengio and Yann LeCun in April of this year by honoring them with the Turing Award for their contributions to deep learning and neural networks. These contributions are put to use every time you log into your smartphone using fingerprint or facial recognition or when you use Google Photos or a voice assistant, and likely every time you use Amazon, Netflix, Facebook or Instagram. The advances in automatic language translation and autonomous cars in recent years arguably wouldn't have progressed as rapidly had it not been for the contributions of these three researchers. All of that is still an understatement of their contributions to artificial intelligence (AI).


Mathematical Language Processing: Automatic Grading and Feedback for Open Response Mathematical Questions

arXiv.org Machine Learning

While computer and communication technologies have provided effective means to scale up many aspects of education, the submission and grading of assessments such as homework assignments and tests remains a weak link. In this paper, we study the problem of automatically grading the kinds of open response mathematical questions that figure prominently in STEM (science, technology, engineering, and mathematics) courses. Our data-driven framework for mathematical language processing (MLP) leverages solution data from a large number of learners to evaluate the correctness of their solutions, assign partial-credit scores, and provide feedback to each learner on the likely locations of any errors. MLP takes inspiration from the success of natural language processing for text data and comprises three main steps. First, we convert each solution to an open response mathematical question into a series of numerical features. Second, we cluster the features from several solutions to uncover the structures of correct, partially correct, and incorrect solutions. We develop two different clustering approaches, one that leverages generic clustering algorithms and one based on Bayesian nonparametrics. Third, we automatically grade the remaining (potentially large number of) solutions based on their assigned cluster and one instructor-provided grade per cluster. As a bonus, we can track the cluster assignment of each step of a multistep solution and determine when it departs from a cluster of correct solutions, which enables us to indicate the likely locations of errors to learners. We test and validate MLP on real-world MOOC data to demonstrate how it can substantially reduce the human effort required in large-scale educational platforms.