Stochastic Gradient Descent is an important and widely used algorithm in machine learning. In this post you will discover how to use Stochastic Gradient Descent to learn the coefficients for a simple linear regression model by minimizing the error on a training dataset. Linear Regression Tutorial Using Gradient Descent for Machine Learning Photo by Stig Nygaard, some rights reserved. Here is the raw data. The attribute x is the input variable and y is the output variable that we are trying to predict.
Employee turn-over (also known as "employee churn") is a costly problem for companies. The true cost of replacing an employee can often be quite large. A study by the Center for American Progress found that companies typically pay about one-fifth of an employee's salary to replace that employee, and the cost can significantly increase if executives or highest-paid employees are to be replaced. In other words, the cost of replacing employees for most employers remains significant. This is due to the amount of time spent to interview and find a replacement, sign-on bonuses, and the loss of productivity for several months while the new employee gets accustomed to the new role.
When building prediction models, the primary goal should be to make a model that most accurately predicts the desired target value for new data. The measure of model error that is used should be one that achieves this goal. In practice, however, many modelers instead report a measure of model error that is based not on the error for new data but instead on the error the very same data that was used to train the model. The use of this incorrect error measure can lead to the selection of an inferior and inaccurate model. Naturally, any model is highly optimized for the data it was trained on.
This walkthrough uses HDInsight Spark to do data exploration and train binary classification and regression models using cross-validation and hyperparameter optimization on a sample of the NYC taxi trip and fare 2013 dataset. It walks you through the steps of the Data Science Process, end-to-end, using an HDInsight Spark cluster for processing and Azure blobs to store the data and the models. The process explores and visualizes data brought in from an Azure Storage Blob and then prepares the data to build predictive models. Python has been used to code the solution and to show the relevant plots. These models are build using the Spark MLlib toolkit to do binary classification and regression modeling tasks.
Linear regression is perhaps one of the most well known and well understood algorithms in statistics and machine learning. In this post you will discover the linear regression algorithm, how it works and how you can best use it in on your machine learning projects. You do not need to know any statistics or linear algebra to understand linear regression. This is a gentle high-level introduction to the technique to give you enough background to be able to use it effectively on your own problems. Linear Regression for Machine Learning Photo by Nicolas Raymond, some rights reserved.