Anomaly detection can be treated as a statistical task as an outlier analysis. But if we develop a machine learning model, it can be automated and as usual, can save a lot of time. There are so many use cases of anomaly detection. Credit card fraud detection, detection of faulty machines, or hardware systems detection based on their anomalous features, disease detection based on medical records are some good examples. There are many more use cases.
Nonparametric detection of existence of an anomalous structure over a network is investigated. Nodes corresponding to the anomalous structure (if one exists) receive samples generated by a distribution q, which is different from a distribution p generating samples for other nodes. If an anomalous structure does not exist, all nodes receive samples generated by p. It is assumed that the distributions p and q are arbitrary and unknown. The goal is to design statistically consistent tests with probability of errors converging to zero as the network size becomes asymptotically large. Kernel-based tests are proposed based on maximum mean discrepancy that measures the distance between mean embeddings of distributions into a reproducing kernel Hilbert space. Detection of an anomalous interval over a line network is first studied. Sufficient conditions on minimum and maximum sizes of candidate anomalous intervals are characterized in order to guarantee the proposed test to be consistent. It is also shown that certain necessary conditions must hold to guarantee any test to be universally consistent. Comparison of sufficient and necessary conditions yields that the proposed test is order-level optimal and nearly optimal respectively in terms of minimum and maximum sizes of candidate anomalous intervals. Generalization of the results to other networks is further developed. Numerical results are provided to demonstrate the performance of the proposed tests.
Although Majorana fermions remain elusive as elementary particles, their solid-state analogs have been observed in hybrid semiconductor-superconductor nanowires. In a nanowire setting, the Majorana states are localized at the ends of the wire. He et al. built a two-dimensional heterostructure in which a one-dimensional Majorana mode is predicted to run along the sample edge (see the Perspective by Pribiag). The heterostructure consisted of a quantum anomalous Hall insulator (QAHI) bar contacted by a superconductor. The authors used an external magnetic field as a "knob" to tune into a regime where a Majorana mode was propagating along the edge of the QAHI bar covered by the superconductor.
Uncovering anomalies in attributed networks has recently gained popularity due to its importance in unveiling outliers and flagging adversarial behavior in a gamut of data and network science applications including the Internet of Things (IoT), finance, security, to list a few. The present work deals with uncovering anomalous edges in attributed graphs using two distinct formulations with complementary strengths, which can be easily distributed, and hence efficient. The first relies on decomposing the graph data matrix into low rank plus sparse components to markedly improve performance. The second broadens the scope of the first by performing robust recovery of the unperturbed graph, which enhances the anomaly identification performance. The novel methods not only capture anomalous edges linking nodes of different communities, but also spurious connections between any two nodes with different features.
Vehicles are becoming more and more connected, this opens up a larger attack surface which not only affects the passengers inside vehicles, but also people around them. These vulnerabilities exist because modern systems are built on the comparatively less secure and old CAN bus framework which lacks even basic authentication. Since a new protocol can only help future vehicles and not older vehicles, our approach tries to solve the issue as a data analytics problem and use machine learning techniques to secure cars. We develop a Hidden Markov Model to detect anomalous states from real data collected from vehicles. Using this model, while a vehicle is in operation, we are able to detect and issue alerts. Our model could be integrated as a plug-n-play device in all new and old cars.