Deep Learning Enables Automatic Detection and Segmentation of Brain Metastases on Multi-Sequence MRI

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Detecting and segmenting brain metastases is a tedious and time-consuming task for many radiologists, particularly with the growing use of multi-sequence 3D imaging. This study demonstrates automated detection and segmentation of brain metastases on multi-sequence MRI using a deep learning approach based on a fully convolution neural network (CNN). In this retrospective study, a total of 156 patients with brain metastases from several primary cancers were included. Pre-therapy MR images (1.5T and 3T) included pre- and post-gadolinium T1-weighted 3D fast spin echo, post-gadolinium T1-weighted 3D axial IR-prepped FSPGR, and 3D fluid attenuated inversion recovery. The ground truth was established by manual delineation by two experienced neuroradiologists. CNN training/development was performed using 100 and 5 patients, respectively, with a 2.5D network based on a GoogLeNet architecture. The results were evaluated in 51 patients, equally separated into those with few (1-3), multiple (4-10), and many (>10) lesions. Network performance was evaluated using precision, recall, Dice/F1 score, and ROC-curve statistics. For an optimal probability threshold, detection and segmentation performance was assessed on a per metastasis basis. The area under the ROC-curve (AUC), averaged across all patients, was 0.98. The AUC in the subgroups was 0.99, 0.97, and 0.97 for patients having 1-3, 4-10, and >10 metastases, respectively. Using an average optimal probability threshold determined by the development set, precision, recall, and Dice-score were 0.79, 0.53, and 0.79, respectively. At the same probability threshold, the network showed an average false positive rate of 8.3/patient (no lesion-size limit) and 3.4/patient (10 mm3 lesion size limit). In conclusion, a deep learning approach using multi-sequence MRI can aid in the detection and segmentation of brain metastases.


Divide and conquer: How Microsoft researchers used AI to master Ms. Pac-Man - Next at Microsoft

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Microsoft researchers have created an artificial intelligence-based system that learned how to get the maximum score on the addictive 1980s video game Ms. Pac-Man, using a divide-and-conquer method that could have broad implications for teaching AI agents to do complex tasks that augment human capabilities. The team from Maluuba, a Canadian deep learning startup acquired by Microsoft earlier this year, used a branch of AI called reinforcement learning to play the Atari 2600 version of Ms. Pac-Man perfectly. Using that method, the team achieved the maximum score possible of 999,990. Doina Precup, an associate professor of computer science at McGill University in Montreal said that's a significant achievement among AI researchers, who have been using various videogames to test their systems but have found Ms. Pac-Man among the most difficult to crack. But Precup said she was impressed not just with what the researchers achieved but with how they achieved it.


Click click snap: One look at patient's face, and AI can identify rare genetic diseases

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WASHINGTON D.C. [USA]: According to a recent study, a new artificial intelligence technology can accurately identify rare genetic disorders using a photograph of a patient's face. Named DeepGestalt, the AI technology outperformed clinicians in identifying a range of syndromes in three trials and could add value in personalised care, CNN reported. The study was published in the journal Nature Medicine. According to the study, eight per cent of the population has disease with key genetic components and many may have recognisable facial features. The study further adds that the technology could identify, for example, Angelman syndrome, a disorder affecting the nervous system with characteristic features such as a wide mouth with widely spaced teeth etc. Speaking about it, Yaron Gurovich, the chief technology officer at FDNA and lead researcher of the study said, "It demonstrates how one can successfully apply state of the art algorithms, such as deep learning, to a challenging field where the available data is small, unbalanced in terms of available patients per condition, and where the need to support a large amount of conditions is great."


Exploring spectro-temporal features in end-to-end convolutional neural networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Triangular, overlapping Mel-scaled filters ("f-banks") are the current standard input for acoustic models that exploit their input's time-frequency geometry, because they provide a psycho-acoustically motivated time-frequency geometry for a speech signal. F-bank coefficients are provably robust to small deformations in the scale. In this paper, we explore two ways in which filter banks can be adjusted for the purposes of speech recognition. First, triangular filters can be replaced with Gabor filters, a compactly supported filter that better localizes events in time, or Gammatone filters, a psychoacoustically-motivated filter. Second, by rearranging the order of operations in computing filter bank features, features can be integrated over smaller time scales while simultaneously providing better frequency resolution. We make all feature implementations available online through open-source repositories. Initial experimentation with a modern end-to-end CNN phone recognizer yielded no significant improvements to phone error rate due to either modification. The result, and its ramifications with respect to learned filter banks, is discussed.


Researchers use AI to detect schools of herring from acoustic data

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Tracking the health of underwater species is critical to understanding the effects of climate change on marine ecosystems. Unfortunately, it's a time-consuming process -- biologists conduct studies with echosounders that use sonar to determine water and object depth, and they manually interpret the resulting 2D echograms. These interpretations are often prone to error and require pricey software like Echoview. Fortunately, a team of research scientists hailing from the University of Victoria in Canada are developing a machine learning method for detecting specific biological targets in acoustic survey data. In a preprint paper ("A Deep Learning based Framework for the Detection of Schools of Herring in Echograms"), they say that their approach -- which they tested on schools of herring -- might measurably improve the accuracy of environmental monitoring.