Deep Learning is a new area of Machine Learning research, which has been introduced with the objective of moving Machine Learning closer to one of its original goals: Artificial Intelligence. See these course notes for a brief introduction to Machine Learning for AI and an introduction to Deep Learning algorithms. Deep Learning is about learning multiple levels of representation and abstraction that help to make sense of data such as images, sound, and text. The tutorials presented here will introduce you to some of the most important deep learning algorithms and will also show you how to run them using Theano. Theano is a python library that makes writing deep learning models easy, and gives the option of training them on a GPU.

Regardless of whether the learner is a human or machine, the basic learning process is similar. Data storage utilizes observation, memory, and recall to provide a factual basis for further reasoning. Abstraction involves the translation of stored data into broader representations and concepts. Generalization uses abstracted data to create knowledge and inferences that drive action in new contexts. Evaluation provides a feedback mechanism to measure the utility of learned knowledge and inform potential improvements.

Machine learning is the idea that there are generic algorithms that can tell you something interesting about a set of data without you having to write any custom code specific to the problem. Instead of writing code, you feed data to the generic algorithm and it builds its own logic based on the data. For example, one kind of algorithm is a classification algorithm. It can put data into different groups. The same classification algorithm used to recognize handwritten numbers could also be used to classify emails into spam and not-spam without changing a line of code.

Abasi, Hasan, Bshouty, Nader H.

We consider the problem of learning a general graph $G=(V,E)$ using edge-detecting queries, where the number of vertices $|V|=n$ is given to the learner. The information theoretic lower bound gives $m\log n$ for the number of queries, where $m=|E|$ is the number of edges. In case the number of edges $m$ is also given to the learner, Angluin-Chen's Las Vegas algorithm \cite{AC08} runs in $4$ rounds and detects the edges in $O(m\log n)$ queries. In the other harder case where the number of edges $m$ is unknown, their algorithm runs in $5$ rounds and asks $O(m\log n+\sqrt{m}\log^2 n)$ queries. There have been two open problems: \emph{(i)} can the number of queries be reduced to $O(m\log n)$ in the second case, and, \emph{(ii)} can the number of rounds be reduced without substantially increasing the number of queries (in both cases). For the first open problem (when $m$ is unknown) we give two algorithms. The first is an $O(1)$-round Las Vegas algorithm that asks $m\log n+\sqrt{m}(\log^{[k]}n)\log n$ queries for any constant $k$ where $\log^{[k]}n=\log \stackrel{k}{\cdots} \log n$. The second is an $O(\log^*n)$-round Las Vegas algorithm that asks $O(m\log n)$ queries. This solves the first open problem for any practical $n$, for example, $n<2^{65536}$. We also show that no deterministic algorithm can solve this problem in a constant number of rounds. To solve the second problem we study the case when $m$ is known. We first show that any non-adaptive Monte Carlo algorithm (one-round) must ask at least $\Omega(m^2\log n)$ queries, and any two-round Las Vegas algorithm must ask at least $m^{4/3-o(1)}\log n$ queries on average. We then give two two-round Monte Carlo algorithms, the first asks $O(m^{4/3}\log n)$ queries for any $n$ and $m$, and the second asks $O(m\log n)$ queries when $n>2^m$. Finally, we give a $3$-round Monte Carlo algorithm that asks $O(m\log n)$ queries for any $n$ and $m$.

We study the theoretical advantages of active learning over passive learning. Specifically, we prove that, in noise-free classifier learning for VC classes, any passive learning algorithm can be transformed into an active learning algorithm with asymptotically strictly superior label complexity for all nontrivial target functions and distributions. We further provide a general characterization of the magnitudes of these improvements in terms of a novel generalization of the disagreement coefficient. We also extend these results to active learning in the presence of label noise, and find that even under broad classes of noise distributions, we can typically guarantee strict improvements over the known results for passive learning.