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Build a simple Neural Network for Breast Cancer Detection using Tensorflow.js

#artificialintelligence

There's more and more research done on detecting all types of cancers in early stages and thus increasing probability of survival. Since I've been passionate about machine learning for a while, I decided to bring my own contribution to this research and learn to train my own neural network detection model. The twist was to build it using Tensorflow with JavaScript, not with Python. We're also using React to manage the state and display the data we get back from the model. For this tutorial, I chose to work with a breast cancer dataset.


Interpretability methods of machine learning algorithms with applications in breast cancer diagnosis

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Early detection of breast cancer is a powerful tool towards decreasing its socioeconomic burden. Although, artificial intelligence (AI) methods have shown remarkable results towards this goal, their "black box" nature hinders their wide adoption in clinical practice. To address the need for AI guided breast cancer diagnosis, interpretability methods can be utilized. In this study, we used AI methods, i.e., Random Forests (RF), Neural Networks (NN) and Ensembles of Neural Networks (ENN), towards this goal and explained and optimized their performance through interpretability techniques, such as the Global Surrogate (GS) method, the Individual Conditional Expectation (ICE) plots and the Shapley values (SV). The Wisconsin Diagnostic Breast Cancer (WDBC) dataset of the open UCI repository was used for the training and evaluation of the AI algorithms. The best performance for breast cancer diagnosis was achieved by the proposed ENN (96.6% accuracy and 0.96 area under the ROC curve), and its predictions were explained by ICE plots, proving that its decisions were compliant with current medical knowledge and can be further utilized to gain new insights in the pathophysiological mechanisms of breast cancer. Feature selection based on features' importance according to the GS model improved the performance of the RF (leading the accuracy from 96.49% to 97.18% and the area under the ROC curve from 0.96 to 0.97) and feature selection based on features' importance according to SV improved the performance of the NN (leading the accuracy from 94.6% to 95.53% and the area under the ROC curve from 0.94 to 0.95). Compared to other approaches on the same dataset, our proposed models demonstrated state of the art performance while being interpretable.


Breast cancer classification

#artificialintelligence

Features are computed from a digitized image of a fine needle aspirate (FNA) of a breast mass. They describe characteristics of the cell nuclei present in the image. This database is also available through the UW CS ftp server: ftp ftp.cs.wisc.edu Also can be found on UCI Machine Learning Repository: https://archive.ics.uci.edu/ml/datasets/Breast The mean, standard error and "worst" or largest (mean of the three largest values) of these features were computed for each image, resulting in 30 features.


Detecting Breast Cancer Using Machine Learning

#artificialintelligence

I remember sitting in my 8th grade English class as we were all going around one day, naming a family member for whom we were grateful. I remember the boy who raised his hand shyly and shared that he was grateful for his mom, who had been battling breast cancer. After he shared his mother's story, multiple other people shared the name of their mothers, aunts, grandmothers, and close family members that had breast cancer. It was an eye-opening experience. Until then, I had not realized how prevalent breast cancer was.


Breast Cancer Diagnosis by Higher-Order Probabilistic Perceptrons

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A two-layer neural network model that systematically includes correlations among input variables to arbitrary order and is designed to implement Bayes inference has been adapted to classify breast cancer tumors as malignant or benign, assigning a probability for either outcome. The inputs to the network represent measured characteristics of cell nuclei imaged in Fine Needle Aspiration biopsies. The present machine-learning approach to diagnosis (known as HOPP, for higher-order probabilistic perceptron) is tested on the much-studied, open-access Breast Cancer Wisconsin (Diagnosis) Data Set of Wolberg et al. This set lists, for each tumor, measured physical parameters of the cell nuclei of each sample. The HOPP model can identify the key factors -- input features and their combinations -- most relevant for reliable diagnosis. HOPP networks were trained on 90\% of the examples in the Wisconsin database, and tested on the remaining 10\%. Referred to ensembles of 300 networks, selected randomly for cross-validation, accuracy of classification for the test sets of up to 97\% was readily achieved, with standard deviation around 2\%, together with average Matthews correlation coefficients reaching 0.94 indicating excellent predictive performance. Demonstrably, the HOPP is capable of matching the predictive power attained by other advanced machine-learning algorithms applied to this much-studied database, over several decades. Analysis shows that in this special problem, which is almost linearly separable, the effects of irreducible correlations among the measured features of the Wisconsin database are of relatively minor importance, as the Naive Bayes approximation can itself yield predictive accuracy approaching 95\%. The advantages of the HOPP algorithm will be more clearly revealed in application to more challenging machine-learning problems.