Most real-world networks are too large to be measured or studied directly and there is substantial interest in estimating global network properties from smaller sub-samples. One of the most important global properties is the number of vertices/nodes in the network. Estimating the number of vertices in a large network is a major challenge in computer science, epidemiology, demography, and intelligence analysis. In this paper we consider a population random graph G = (V;E) from the stochastic block model (SBM) with K communities/blocks. A sample is obtained by randomly choosing a subset W and letting G(W) be the induced subgraph in G of the vertices in W. In addition to G(W), we observe the total degree of each sampled vertex and its block membership. Given this partial information, we propose an efficient PopULation Size Estimation algorithm, called PULSE, that accurately estimates the size of the whole population as well as the size of each community. To support our theoretical analysis, we perform an exhaustive set of experiments to study the effects of sample size, K, and SBM model parameters on the accuracy of the estimates. The experimental results also demonstrate that PULSE significantly outperforms a widely-used method called the network scale-up estimator in a wide variety of scenarios.
People who use dating apps such as Tinder may be up to 27 times as likely to use drastic or unhealthy techniques to try and stay slim. Deliberately vomiting, taking laxatives and even using anabolic steroids is more common among dating app users, a study found. Researchers found'unrealistic' desires to look like celebrities on television and social media are driving people to damaging behaviour. And with an estimated 50million people around the world signed up to Tinder the scientists warned experts must better understand its damaging effects. Researchers said social media and TV shows reinforce'ideal' body images which drive men to try and become more muscly and women slimmer, which may drive them to drastic weight loss measures (Pictured: Love Island contestants Anton Danyluk and Amber Gill – the show is well-known for displaying young people with extremely honed bodies.
Data integration is central in Web application development because these applications typically deal with a variety of information formats. Ontology-driven applications face the additional challenge of integrating these multiple formats with the information stored in ontologies. A number of mappings are required to reconcile the variety of formats to produce a coherent overall system. To address these mappings we have developed a number of open source tools that support transformations between some of the common formats encountered when developing an ontology-driven Web application. The Semantic Web Rule Language (SWRL) is a central building block in these tools. We describe these tools and illustrate their use in the development of a prototype Web-based application.
A smartphone-based system for diagnosing respiratory diseases achieved an accuracy of 89 percent in a recent clinical study of 524 pediatric patients conducted by the company at Joondalup Health Campus (JHC) and Princess Margaret Hospital (PMH) in Perth, Western Australia. Perth-based ResApp essentially uses the smartphone microphone as a stethoscope to listen to a patient's breathing. But instead of relying solely on a doctor's ears to form a diagnosis from those sounds, ResApp has been developing machine-learning algorithms that will automatically determine which respiratory condition a patient might have, including pneumonia, asthma, bronchiolitis and COPD. In the future, the company hopes to integrate those algorithms into telehealth offerings as well as making them available for clinical use. ResApp released data from this trial previously in November, but that data set included fewer patients.
"Are dating apps to blame for the rise in STDs?" It's a line that seems tailor-made for morning news shows, designed to be read in that formal, faux-inquisitive tone newscasters use before cutting to commercial break. It's true that STD rates have risen in the U.S. over the last 10 years, with an especially steep rise in the last four years. Alongside straight coverage of this rise, reports drawing the line between STDs and dating apps have also proliferated on local news, digital outlets, and cable networks around the country. And like all sound bites, the way these pieces are framed doesn't reflect the whole story -- they just capitalize on the easiest part of it. The simplistic sound bite reared its ugly head again when, in May, the California Department of Public Health released its own study on the rise of STDs in the state.