IBM Watson Health has formed a medical imaging collaborative with more than 15 leading healthcare organizations. The goal: To take on some of the most deadly diseases. The collaborative, which includes health systems, academic medical centers, ambulatory radiology providers and imaging technology companies, aims to help doctors address breast, lung, and other cancers; diabetes; eye health; brain disease; and heart disease and related conditions, such as stroke. Watson will mine insights from what IBM calls previously invisible unstructured imaging data and combine it with a broad variety of data from other sources, such as data from electronic health records, radiology and pathology reports, lab results, doctors' progress notes, medical journals, clinical care guidelines and published outcomes studies. As the work of the collaborative evolves, Watson's rationale and insights will evolve, informed by the latest combined thinking of the participating organizations.
A scan of a human eye. SAN FRANCISCO -- Google plans to use more than one million anonymized eye scans to teach computers how to diagnose ocular disease. The Menlo Park, Calif.-based company has signed a deal with a British eye hospital to use artificial intelligence to learn from the medical records of 1.6 million patients in London hospitals. The goal is to teach a computer program to recognize the signs of two common types of eye disease, diabetic retinopathy and age-related macular degeneration. That's something humans are surprisingly imperfect at.
Diabetic retinopathy, an eye disorder caused by diabetes, is the primary cause of blindness in America and over 99% of cases in India. India and China currently account for over 90 million diabetic patients and are on the verge of an explosion of diabetic populations. This may result in an unprecedented number of persons becoming blind unless diabetic retinopathy can be detected early. Aravind Eye Hospitals is the largest eye care facility in the world, handling over 2 million patients per year. The hospital is on a massive drive throughout southern India to detect diabetic retinopathy at an early stage. To that end, a group of 10-15 physicians are responsible for manually diagnosing over 2 million retinal images per year to detect diabetic retinopathy. While the task is extremely laborious, a large fraction of cases turn out to be normal indicating that much of this time is spent diagnosing completely normal cases. This paper describes our early experiences working with Aravind Eye Hospitals to develop an automated system to detect diabetic retinopathy from retinal images. The automated diabetic retinopathy problem is a hard computer vision problem whose goal is to detect features of retinopathy, such as hemorrhages and exudates, in retinal color fundus images. We describe our initial efforts towards building such a system using a range of computer vision techniques and discuss the potential impact on early detection of diabetic retinopathy.
The widespread availability of electronic health records (EHRs) promises to usher in the era of personalized medicine. However, the problem of extracting useful clinical representations from longitudinal EHR data remains challenging. In this paper, we explore deep neural network models with learned medical feature embedding to deal with the problems of high dimensionality and temporality. Specifically, we use a multi-layer convolutional neural network (CNN) to parameterize the model and is thus able to capture complex non-linear longitudinal evolution of EHRs. Our model can effectively capture local/short temporal dependency in EHRs, which is beneficial for risk prediction. To account for high dimensionality, we use the embedding medical features in the CNN model which hold the natural medical concepts. Our initial experiments produce promising results and demonstrate the effectiveness of both the medical feature embedding and the proposed convolutional neural network in risk prediction on cohorts of congestive heart failure and diabetes patients compared with several strong baselines.