Collaborating Authors

A new class of generative classifiers based on staged tree models Machine Learning

Generative models for classification use the joint probability distribution of the class variable and the features to construct a decision rule. Among generative models, Bayesian networks and naive Bayes classifiers are the most commonly used and provide a clear graphical representation of the relationship among all variables. However, these have the disadvantage of highly restricting the type of relationships that could exist, by not allowing for context-specific independences. Here we introduce a new class of generative classifiers, called staged tree classifiers, which formally account for context-specific independence. They are constructed by a partitioning of the vertices of an event tree from which conditional independence can be formally read. The naive staged tree classifier is also defined, which extends the classic naive Bayes classifier whilst retaining the same complexity. An extensive simulation study shows that the classification accuracy of staged tree classifiers is competitive with those of state-of-the-art classifiers. An applied analysis to predict the fate of the passengers of the Titanic highlights the insights that the new class of generative classifiers can give.

Marginal and simultaneous predictive classification using stratified graphical models Machine Learning

An inductive probabilistic classification rule must generally obey the principles of Bayesian predictive inference, such that all observed and unobserved stochastic quantities are jointly modeled and the parameter uncertainty is fully acknowledged through the posterior predictive distribution. Several such rules have been recently considered and their asymptotic behavior has been characterized under the assumption that the observed features or variables used for building a classifier are conditionally independent given a simultaneous labeling of both the training samples and those from an unknown origin. Here we extend the theoretical results to predictive classifiers acknowledging feature dependencies either through graphical models or sparser alternatives defined as stratified graphical models. We also show through experimentation with both synthetic and real data that the predictive classifiers based on stratified graphical models have consistently best accuracy compared with the predictive classifiers based on either conditionally independent features or on ordinary graphical models.

Learning Selectively Conditioned Forest Structures with Applications to DBNs and Classification Machine Learning

Dealing with uncertainty in Bayesian Network structures using maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimation or Bayesian Model Averaging (BMA) is often intractable due to the superexponential number of possible directed, acyclic graphs. When the prior is decomposable, two classes of graphs where efficient learning can take place are tree structures, and fixed-orderings with limited in-degree. We show how MAP estimates and BMA for selectively conditioned forests (SCF), a combination of these two classes, can be computed efficiently for ordered sets of variables. We apply SCFs to temporal data to learn Dynamic Bayesian Networks having an intra-timestep forest and inter-timestep limited in-degree structure, improving model accuracy over DBNs without the combination of structures. We also apply SCFs to Bayes Net classification to learn selective forest augmented Naive Bayes classifiers. We argue that the built-in feature selection of selective augmented Bayes classifiers makes them preferable to similar non-selective classifiers based on empirical evidence.

Modeling Spammer Behavior: Na\"ive Bayes vs. Artificial Neural Networks Artificial Intelligence

Addressing the problem of spam emails in the Internet, this paper presents a comparative study on Na\"ive Bayes and Artificial Neural Networks (ANN) based modeling of spammer behavior. Keyword-based spam email filtering techniques fall short to model spammer behavior as the spammer constantly changes tactics to circumvent these filters. The evasive tactics that the spammer uses are themselves patterns that can be modeled to combat spam. It has been observed that both Na\"ive Bayes and ANN are best suitable for modeling spammer common patterns. Experimental results demonstrate that both of them achieve a promising detection rate of around 92%, which is considerably an improvement of performance compared to the keyword-based contemporary filtering approaches.

Naive Bayes Classification explained with Python code


Within Machine Learning many tasks are - or can be reformulated as - classification tasks. In classification tasks we are trying to produce a model which can give the correlation between the input data and the class each input belongs to. This model is formed with the feature-values of the input-data. For example, the dataset contains datapoints belonging to the classes Apples, Pears and Oranges and based on the features of the datapoints (weight, color, size etc) we are trying to predict the class. We need some amount of training data to train the Classifier, i.e. form a correct model of the data.