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A Multi-Disciplinary Review of Knowledge Acquisition Methods: From Human to Autonomous Eliciting Agents

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This paper offers a multi-disciplinary review of knowledge acquisition methods in human activity systems. The review captures the degree of involvement of various types of agencies in the knowledge acquisition process, and proposes a classification with three categories of methods: the human agent, the human-inspired agent, and the autonomous machine agent methods. In the first two categories, the acquisition of knowledge is seen as a cognitive task analysis exercise, while in the third category knowledge acquisition is treated as an autonomous knowledge-discovery endeavour. The motivation for this classification stems from the continuous change over time of the structure, meaning and purpose of human activity systems, which are seen as the factor that fuelled researchers' and practitioners' efforts in knowledge acquisition for more than a century. We show through this review that the KA field is increasingly active due to the higher and higher pace of change in human activity, and conclude by discussing the emergence of a fourth category of knowledge acquisition methods, which are based on red-teaming and co-evolution.


Research on the Brain-inspired Cross-media Neural Cognitive Computing Framework

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

To address modeling problems of brain-inspired intelligence, this thesis is focused on researching in the semantic-oriented framework design for image, audio, language and video. The Multimedia Neural Cognitive Computing (MNCC) model was designed based on the nervous mechanism and cognitive architecture. Furthermore, the semantic-oriented hierarchical Cross-media Neural Cognitive Computing (CNCC) framework was proposed based on MNCC, and formal description and analysis for CNCC was given. It would effectively improve the performance of semantic processing for multimedia information, and has far-reaching significance for exploration and realization brain-inspired computing.



The Tensor Brain: Semantic Decoding for Perception and Memory

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We analyse perception and memory using mathematical models for knowledge graphs and tensors to gain insights in the corresponding functionalities of the human mind. Our discussion is based on the concept of propositional sentences consisting of \textit{subject-predicate-object} (SPO) triples for expressing elementary facts. SPO sentences are the basis for most natural languages but might also be important for explicit perception and declarative memories, as well as intra-brain communication and the ability to argue and reason. A set of SPO sentences can be described as a knowledge graph, which can be transformed into an adjacency tensor. We introduce tensor models, where concepts have dual representations as indices and associated embeddings, two constructs we believe are essential for the understanding of implicit and explicit perception and memory in the brain. We argue that a biological realization of perception and memory imposes constraints on information processing. In particular, we propose that explicit perception and declarative memories require a semantic decoder, which, in a simple realization, is based on four layers: First, a sensory memory layer, as a buffer for sensory input, second, an index layer representing concepts, third, a memoryless representation layer for the broadcasting of information and fourth, a working memory layer as a processing center and data buffer. In a Bayesian brain interpretation, semantic memory defines the prior for triple statements. We propose that, in evolution and during development, semantic memory, episodic memory and natural language evolved as emergent properties in the agents' process to gain deeper understanding of sensory information. We present a concrete model realization and validate some aspects of our proposed model on benchmark data where we demonstrate state-of-the-art performance.


Explanation in Human-AI Systems: A Literature Meta-Review, Synopsis of Key Ideas and Publications, and Bibliography for Explainable AI

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This is an integrative review that address the question, "What makes for a good explanation?" with reference to AI systems. Pertinent literatures are vast. Thus, this review is necessarily selective. That said, most of the key concepts and issues are expressed in this Report. The Report encapsulates the history of computer science efforts to create systems that explain and instruct (intelligent tutoring systems and expert systems). The Report expresses the explainability issues and challenges in modern AI, and presents capsule views of the leading psychological theories of explanation. Certain articles stand out by virtue of their particular relevance to XAI, and their methods, results, and key points are highlighted. It is recommended that AI/XAI researchers be encouraged to include in their research reports fuller details on their empirical or experimental methods, in the fashion of experimental psychology research reports: details on Participants, Instructions, Procedures, Tasks, Dependent Variables (operational definitions of the measures and metrics), Independent Variables (conditions), and Control Conditions.