Food's environmental impacts are created by millions of diverse producers. To identify solutions that are effective under this heterogeneity, we consolidated data covering five environmental indicators; 38,700 farms; and 1600 processors, packaging types, and retailers. Impact can vary 50-fold among producers of the same product, creating substantial mitigation opportunities. However, mitigation is complicated by trade-offs, multiple ways for producers to achieve low impacts, and interactions throughout the supply chain. Producers have limits on how far they can reduce impacts.
This bizarre conflation shows that Trump's "nobody really knows" isn't a sophisticated epistemology. He only demands infinite levels of certainty when it's convenient to him. What nobody really knows is not whether climate change is real--there's substantive consensus behind that--but whether environmental regulations are hampering American economic competitiveness. A 2014 policy brief published by the London School of Economics suggests that any negative effects that environmental regulations have on job growth are small, and job relocations are "more likely to occur within countries, where relocation barriers are low, than across borders."