A data set is called imbalanced if it contains many more samples from one class than from the rest of the classes. Data sets are unbalanced when at least one class is represented by only a small number of training examples (called the minority class) while other classes make up the majority. In this scenario, classifiers can have good accuracy on the majority class but very poor accuracy on the minority class(es) due to the influence that the larger majority class. The common example of such dataset is credit card fraud detection, where data points for fraud 1, are usually very less in comparison to fraud 0. There are many reasons why a dataset might be imbalanced: the category one is targeting might be very rare in the population, or the data might simply be difficult to collect. Let's solve the problem of an imbalanced dataset by working on one such dataset.
Bagging is an ensemble machine learning algorithm that combines the predictions from many decision trees. It is also easy to implement given that it has few key hyperparameters and sensible heuristics for configuring these hyperparameters. Bagging performs well in general and provides the basis for a whole field of ensemble of decision tree algorithms such as the popular random forest and extra trees ensemble algorithms, as well as the lesser-known Pasting, Random Subspaces, and Random Patches ensemble algorithms. In this tutorial, you will discover how to develop Bagging ensembles for classification and regression. How to Develop a Bagging Ensemble in Python Photo by daveynin, some rights reserved. Bootstrap Aggregation, or Bagging for short, is an ensemble machine learning algorithm. Specifically, it is an ensemble of decision tree models, although the bagging technique can also be used to combine the predictions of other types of models.
In the previous article here, we have gone through the different methods to deal with imbalanced data. In this article, let us try to understand how to use imbalanced-learn library to deal with imbalanced class problems. We will make use of Pycaret library and UCI's default of credit card client dataset which is also in-built into PyCaret. Imbalanced-learn is a python package that provides a number of re-sampling techniques to deal with class imbalance problems commonly encountered in classification tasks. Note that imbalanced-learn is compatible with scikit-learn and is also part of scikit-learn-contrib projects.
Ensemble learning refers to machine learning models that combine the predictions from two or more models. Ensembles are an advanced approach to machine learning that are often used when the capability and skill of the predictions are more important than using a simple and understandable model. As such, they are often used by top and winning participants in machine learning competitions like the One Million Dollar Netflix Prize and Kaggle Competitions. Modern machine learning libraries like scikit-learn Python provide a suite of advanced ensemble learning methods that are easy to configure and use correctly without data leakage, a common concern when using ensemble algorithms. In this crash course, you will discover how you can get started and confidently bring ensemble learning algorithms to your predictive modeling project with Python in seven days.
Class imbalance presents a major hurdle in the application of data mining methods. A common practice to deal with it is to create ensembles of classifiers that learn from resampled balanced data. For example, bagged decision trees combined with random undersampling (RUS) or the synthetic minority oversampling technique (SMOTE). However, most of the resampling methods entail asymmetric changes to the examples of different classes, which in turn can introduce its own biases in the model. Furthermore, those methods require a performance measure to be specified a priori before learning. An alternative is to use a so-called threshold-moving method that a posteriori changes the decision threshold of a model to counteract the imbalance, thus has a potential to adapt to the performance measure of interest. Surprisingly, little attention has been paid to the potential of combining bagging ensemble with threshold-moving. In this paper, we present probability thresholding bagging (PT-bagging), a versatile plug-in method that fills this gap. Contrary to usual rebalancing practice, our method preserves the natural class distribution of the data resulting in well calibrated posterior probabilities. We also extend the proposed method to handle multiclass data. The method is validated on binary and multiclass benchmark data sets. We perform analyses that provide insights into the proposed method.