Semantic Web is actually an extension of the current one in that it represents information more meaningfully for humans and computers alike. It enables the description of contents and services in machine-readable form, and enables annotating, discovering, publishing, advertising and composing services to be automated. It was developed based on Ontology, which is considered as the backbone of the Semantic Web. In other words, the current Web is transformed from being machine-readable to machine-understandable. In fact, Ontology is a key technique with which to annotate semantics and provide a common, comprehensible foundation for resources on the Semantic Web. Moreover, Ontology can provide a common vocabulary, a grammar for publishing data, and can supply a semantic description of data which can be used to preserve the Ontologies and keep them ready for inference. This paper provides basic concepts of web services and the Semantic Web, defines the structure and the main applications of ontology, and provides many relevant terms are explained in order to provide a basic understanding of ontologies.
In the abundance of information, both machines and human researchers need tools to navigate and process it. Structuring and formalization of data into hierarchies, such as trees, may establish the relations between the data required for efficient machine processing and may make the information more readable for data analysts. Yet, in more complex domains, such as in natural language processing, relations between concepts go beyond simple hierarchies and form thesaurus-like networks. For such cases, researchers use ontologies as common vocabularies for specialists who need to share information in a domain. Ontologies were first defined as "explicit formal specifications of the terms in the domain and relations among them" (Gruber 1993) and, more specifically, "a formal, explicit specification of a shared conceptualization" (Studer et al. 1998) and are used in a number of applications, including the following, as specified by Noy and McGuinness (Noy and McGuinness 2001): Ontologies are the tools to provide comprehensive description of the domain of interest with respect to the users' needs It is something that we see when, for example, medical information is published on, several different websites.
The ability of a system to meet its requirements is a strong determinant of success. Thus effective requirements specification is crucial. Explicit Requirements are well-defined needs for a system to execute. IMplicit Requirements (IMRs) are assumed needs that a system is expected to fulfill though not elicited during requirements gathering. Studies have shown that a major factor in the failure of software systems is the presence of unhandled IMRs. Since relevance of IMRs is important for efficient system functionality, there are methods developed to aid the identification and management of IMRs. In this paper, we emphasize that Common Sense Knowledge, in the field of Knowledge Representation in AI, would be useful to automatically identify and manage IMRs. This paper is aimed at identifying the sources of IMRs and also proposing an automated support tool for managing IMRs within an organizational context. Since this is found to be a present gap in practice, our work makes a contribution here. We propose a novel approach for identifying and managing IMRs based on combining three core technologies: common sense knowledge, text mining and ontology. We claim that discovery and handling of unknown and non-elicited requirements would reduce risks and costs in software development.
An ontology-based data access (OBDA) system is composed of one or more data sources, an ontology that provides a conceptual view of the data, and declarative mappings that relate the data and ontology schemas. In order to debug and optimize such systems, it is important to be able to analyze and compare OBDA specifications. Recent work in this direction compared specifications using classical notions of equivalence and entailment, but an interesting alternative is to consider query-based notions, in which two specifications are deemed equivalent if they give the same answers to the considered query or class of queries for all possible data sources. In this paper, we define such query-based notions of entailment and equivalence of OBDA specifications and investigate the complexity of the resulting analysis tasks when the ontology is formulated in (fragments of) DL-LiteR.