Augmenting expert detection of early coronary artery occlusion from 12 lead electrocardiograms using deep learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Early diagnosis of acute coronary artery occlusion based on electrocardiogram (ECG) findings is essential for prompt delivery of primary percutaneous coronary intervention. Current ST elevation (STE) criteria are specific but insensitive. Consequently, it is likely that many patients are missing out on potentially life-saving treatment. Experts combining non-specific ECG changes with STE detect ischaemia with higher sensitivity, but at the cost of specificity. We show that a deep learning model can detect ischaemia caused by acute coronary artery occlusion with a better balance of sensitivity and specificity than STE criteria, existing computerised analysers or expert cardiologists.


Divide and conquer: How Microsoft researchers used AI to master Ms. Pac-Man - Next at Microsoft

#artificialintelligence

Microsoft researchers have created an artificial intelligence-based system that learned how to get the maximum score on the addictive 1980s video game Ms. Pac-Man, using a divide-and-conquer method that could have broad implications for teaching AI agents to do complex tasks that augment human capabilities. The team from Maluuba, a Canadian deep learning startup acquired by Microsoft earlier this year, used a branch of AI called reinforcement learning to play the Atari 2600 version of Ms. Pac-Man perfectly. Using that method, the team achieved the maximum score possible of 999,990. Doina Precup, an associate professor of computer science at McGill University in Montreal said that's a significant achievement among AI researchers, who have been using various videogames to test their systems but have found Ms. Pac-Man among the most difficult to crack. But Precup said she was impressed not just with what the researchers achieved but with how they achieved it.


Transfer learning for Remaining Useful Life Prediction Based on Consensus Self-Organizing Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The traditional paradigm for developing machine prognostics usually relies on generalization from data acquired in experiments under controlled conditions prior to deployment of the equipment. Detecting or predicting failures and estimating machine health in this way assumes that future field data will have a very similar distribution to the experiment data. However, many complex machines operate under dynamic environmental conditions and are used in many different ways. This makes collecting comprehensive data very challenging, and the assumption that pre-deployment data and post-deployment data follow very similar distributions is unlikely to hold. Transfer Learning (TL) refers to methods for transferring knowledge learned in one setting (the source domain) to another setting (the target domain). In this work, we present a TL method for predicting Remaining Useful Life (RUL) of equipment, under the assumption that labels are available only for the source domain and not the target domain. This setting corresponds to generalizing from a limited number of run-to-failure experiments performed prior to deployment into making prognostics with data coming from deployed equipment that is being used under multiple new operating conditions and experiencing previously unseen faults. We employ a deviation detection method, Consensus Self-Organizing Models (COSMO), to create transferable features for building the RUL regression model. These features capture how different target equipment is in comparison to its peers. The efficiency of the proposed TL method is demonstrated using the NASA Turbofan Engine Degradation Simulation Data Set. Models using the COSMO transferable features show better performance than other methods on predicting RUL when the target domain is more complex than the source domain.


A Theoretically Grounded Application of Dropout in Recurrent Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recurrent neural networks (RNNs) stand at the forefront of many recent developments in deep learning. Yet a major difficulty with these models is their tendency to overfit, with dropout shown to fail when applied to recurrent layers. Recent results at the intersection of Bayesian modelling and deep learning offer a Bayesian interpretation of common deep learning techniques such as dropout. This grounding of dropout in approximate Bayesian inference suggests an extension of the theoretical results, offering insights into the use of dropout with RNN models. We apply this new variational inference based dropout technique in LSTM and GRU models, assessing it on language modelling and sentiment analysis tasks. The new approach outperforms existing techniques, and to the best of our knowledge improves on the single model state-of-the-art in language modelling with the Penn Treebank (73.4 test perplexity). This extends our arsenal of variational tools in deep learning.


Towards Representation Learning with Tractable Probabilistic Models

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Probabilistic models learned as density estimators can be exploited in representation learning beside being toolboxes used to answer inference queries only. However, how to extract useful representations highly depends on the particular model involved. We argue that tractable inference, i.e. inference that can be computed in polynomial time, can enable general schemes to extract features from black box models. We plan to investigate how Tractable Probabilistic Models (TPMs) can be exploited to generate embeddings by random query evaluations. We devise two experimental designs to assess and compare different TPMs as feature extractors in an unsupervised representation learning framework. We show some experimental results on standard image datasets by applying such a method to Sum-Product Networks and Mixture of Trees as tractable models generating embeddings.