The first step was not an easy one: Training dogs to remain absolutely still in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) scanner. It took several months for dog trainers to work their magic on 13 pet dogs that live in Hungary, including six border collies, four golden retrievers, one German shepherd, and one Chinese crested.
They then tested the models on an external test set of 129 paired radiographs from patients at Johns Hopkins University who were diagnosed with sarcoidosis involving any organ. The test set had a higher prevalence of hilar adenopathy compared with the general population, Mazumdar noted. For the purposes of the study, the ground truth was determined by board-certified thoracic radiologists after reviewing contemporaneous chest CT images.