A model-based diagnosis problem occurs when an observation is inconsistent with the assumption that the diagnosed system is not faulty. The task of a diagnosis engine is to compute diagnoses, which are assumptions on the health of components in the diagnosed system that explain the observation. In this paper, we extend Reiter's well-known theory of diagnosis by exploiting the duality of the relation between conflicts and diagnoses. This duality means that a diagnosis is a hitting set of conflicts, but a conflict is also a hitting set of diagnoses. We use this property to interleave the search for diagnoses and conflicts: a set of conflicts can guide the search for diagnosis, and the computed diagnoses can guide the search for more conflicts. We provide the formal basis for this dual conflict-diagnosis relation, and propose a novel diagnosis algorithm that exploits this duality. Experimental results show that the new algorithm is able to find a minimal cardinality diagnosis faster than the well-known Conflict-Directed A*.
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Autistic children and their younger siblings are much less likely to be fully vaccinated compared to those without the disorder, according to new research published Monday in the journal JAMA Pediatrics. "In this large and comprehensive study, we found that after children received an autism diagnosis, the rates of vaccination were significantly lower when compared with children of the same age who did not have an autism diagnosis," said lead author Ousseny Zerbo, a doctor at the Kaiser Permanente Northern California Division of Research. The team of researchers studied data on 3,729 children with autism spectrum disorder (ADS) born between 1995 and 2010 and their younger brothers and sisters. The team also compared the information to 592, 907 children of the same age without the diagnosis. ADS is used to describe "a spectrum" of symptoms, skills, and levels of disability in an individual.
More than half of those seeking a diagnosis for dementia have delayed going to their GP by at least a year, according to a survey carried out by the Alzheimer's Society. The charity says nearly two-thirds of people fear a diagnosis would mean their life is over. But it says an early diagnosis can actually help people to live as well as possible. And it wants everyone to confront head-on the challenges posed by dementia. In a survey of 2,000 adults, almost half thought they would have to stop driving immediately while one in five feared losing their partner or friends if they were diagnosed with dementia.
First language Welsh speakers were diagnosed with dementia about three years later than those who spoke only English, a study has shown. Bangor University experts said the findings suggested Welsh speakers might be less inclined to discuss their health or they may have a better support network and seek help later. The study has been highlighted during Dementia Awareness Week. There are about 45,000 people living with dementia in Wales. Dementia studies lecturer Dr Catrin Hedd Jones told Newyddion 9 the reasons behind the difference in diagnosis time could be due to a range of factors, including a reluctance to speak up sooner.