Collaborating Authors

Creativity at the Metalevel: AAAI-2000 Presidential Address

AI Magazine

Creativity is sometimes taken to be an inexplicable aspect of human activity. By summarizing a considerable body of literature on creativity, I hope to show how to turn some of the best ideas about creativity into programs that are demonstrably more creative than any we have seen to date. I believe the key to building more creative programs is to give them the ability to reflect on and modify their own frameworks and criteria. That is, I believe that the key to creativity is at the metalevel.



CloudPainter is an artificially creative painting robot project. It is the sixth collaborative robotic art system that I have made in the past twelve years. My first machine drew simple lines with a paint brush, connect-the-dots. My most recent robots use a custom 3D printed paint head, two robotics arms, deep learning, artificial intelligence, and computational creativity to make an increasing amount of independent aesthetic decisions. Have always wondered what exactly creativity was.


AAAI Conferences

In this brief communication I first give an overview of for different branches in creativity research: investigating psychological/cognitive mechanisms of creativity; designing creativity support tools; metaphysical / philosophical / anthropological explorations on the nature of creativity; and computational models of creativity. Then I discuss their relations and complementarity and finally, in the conclusion, I suggest that an attempt to create a unified framework for creativity research would benefit the field as a whole.

Creativity and machines


First it was chess and then recently it was the Chinese game of Go – in both cases a computer beat the best human we could offer up. These machines may be able to process information faster than us but are they even close to being creative?

Exploring Creativity


My friend and I scuba dived in the Red Sea when we went to Israel. The most memorable part of this dive for me was looking up from the bottom and seeing the surface covered in beautiful purple jellyfish, penetrated by a few rays of sunlight. I have wondered how to describe or paint that beauty for quite a while, so I have decided to attempt a poem.