Existing computational methods for the analysis of corpora of text in natural language are still far from approaching a human level of understanding. We attempt to advance the state of the art by introducing a model and algorithmic framework to transform text into recursively structured data. We apply this to the analysis of news titles extracted from a social news aggregation website. We show that a recursive ordered hypergraph is a sufficiently generic structure to represent significant number of fundamental natural language constructs, with advantages over conventional approaches such as semantic graphs. We present a pipeline of transformations from the output of conventional NLP algorithms to such hypergraphs, which we denote as semantic hypergraphs. The features of these transformations include the creation of new concepts from existing ones, the organisation of statements into regular structures of predicates followed by an arbitrary number of entities and the ability to represent statements about other statements. We demonstrate knowledge inference from the hypergraph, identifying claims and expressions of conflicts, along with their participating actors and topics. We show how this enables the actor-centric summarization of conflicts, comparison of topics of claims between actors and networks of conflicts between actors in the context of a given topic. On the whole, we propose a hypergraphic knowledge representation model that can be used to provide effective overviews of a large corpus of text in natural language.
The potential for advances in information-age technologies to undermine nuclear deterrence and influence the potential for nuclear escalation represents a critical question for international politics. One challenge is that uncertainty about the trajectory of technologies such as autonomous systems and artificial intelligence (AI) makes assessments difficult. This paper evaluates the relative impact of autonomous systems and artificial intelligence in three areas: nuclear command and control, nuclear delivery platforms and vehicles, and conventional applications of autonomous systems with consequences for nuclear stability. We argue that countries may be more likely to use risky forms of autonomy when they fear that their second-strike capabilities will be undermined. Additionally, the potential deployment of uninhabited, autonomous nuclear delivery platforms and vehicles could raise the prospect for accidents and miscalculation. Conventional military applications of autonomous systems could simultaneously influence nuclear force postures and first-strike stability in previously unanticipated ways. In particular, the need to fight at machine speed and the cognitive risk introduced by automation bias could increase the risk of unintended escalation. Finally, used properly, there should be many applications of more autonomous systems in nuclear operations that can increase reliability, reduce the risk of accidents, and buy more time for decision-makers in a crisis.
Russian President Vladimir Putin warned Friday (Sept. AI development "raises colossal opportunities and threats that are difficult to predict now," Putin said in a lecture to students, warning that "it would be strongly undesirable if someone wins a monopolist position." Future wars will be fought by autonomous drones, Putin suggested, and "when one party's drones are destroyed by drones of another, it will have no other choice but to surrender." U.N. urged to address lethal autonomous weapons AI experts worldwide are also concerned. On August 20, 116 founders of robotics and artificial intelligence companies from 26 countries, including Elon Musk and Google DeepMind's Mustafa Suleyman, signed an open letter asking the United Nations to "urgently address the challenge of lethal autonomous weapons (often called'killer robots') and ban their use internationally."