This study proposes a framework for human-like autonomous car-following planning based on deep reinforcement learning (deep RL). Historical driving data are fed into a simulation environment where an RL agent learns from trial and error interactions based on a reward function that signals how much the agent deviates from the empirical data. Through these interactions, an optimal policy, or car-following model that maps in a human-like way from speed, relative speed between a lead and following vehicle, and inter-vehicle spacing to acceleration of a following vehicle is finally obtained. The model can be continuously updated when more data are fed in. Two thousand car-following periods extracted from the 2015 Shanghai Naturalistic Driving Study were used to train the model and compare its performance with that of traditional and recent data-driven car-following models. As shown by this study results, a deep deterministic policy gradient car-following model that uses disparity between simulated and observed speed as the reward function and considers a reaction delay of 1s, denoted as DDPGvRT, can reproduce human-like car-following behavior with higher accuracy than traditional and recent data-driven car-following models. Specifically, the DDPGvRT model has a spacing validation error of 18% and speed validation error of 5%, which are less than those of other models, including the intelligent driver model, models based on locally weighted regression, and conventional neural network-based models. Moreover, the DDPGvRT demonstrates good capability of generalization to various driving situations and can adapt to different drivers by continuously learning. This study demonstrates that reinforcement learning methodology can offer insight into driver behavior and can contribute to the development of human-like autonomous driving algorithms and traffic-flow models.
Hot on the heels of Google's robot cars, a team of German researchers at AutoNOMOS Labs in Berlin's Free University have upped the ante and unveiled the driverless taxi. Imagine never arguing about the most efficient route or mentally debating the merits of tipping a driver whose ineptitude at the wheel almost killed you. Made in Germany (MIG) is an autonomous Volkswagen Passat cab you hail using an iPad app, and it eliminates the most unappealing aspect of taxis: the driver. MIG is equipped with GPS navigation, video cameras, laser scanners, sensors and radars that it uses to construct a 3D map of its surroundings. It uses this map to detect pedestrians and other vehicles as it navigates the road.
Short-term demand forecasting models commonly combine convolutional and recurrent layers to extract complex spatiotemporal patterns in data. Long-term histories are also used to consider periodicity and seasonality patterns as time series data. In this study, we propose an efficient architecture, Temporal-Guided Network (TGNet), which utilizes graph networks and temporal-guided embedding. Graph networks extract invariant features to permutations of adjacent regions instead of convolutional layers. Temporal-guided embedding explicitly learns temporal contexts from training data and is substituted for the input of long-term histories from days/weeks ago. TGNet learns an autoregressive model, conditioned on temporal contexts of forecasting targets from temporal-guided embedding. Finally, our model achieves competitive performances with other baselines on three spatiotemporal demand dataset from real-world, but the number of trainable parameters is about 20 times smaller than a state-of-the-art baseline. We also show that temporal-guided embedding learns temporal contexts as intended and TGNet has robust forecasting performances even to atypical event situations.
Emerging transportation modes, including car-sharing, bike-sharing, and ride-hailing, are transforming urban mobility but have been shown to reinforce socioeconomic inequities. Spatiotemporal demand prediction models for these new mobility regimes must therefore consider fairness as a first-class design requirement. We present FairST, a fairness-aware model for predicting demand for new mobility systems. Our approach utilizes 1D, 2D and 3D convolutions to integrate various urban features and learn the spatial-temporal dynamics of a mobility system, but we include fairness metrics as a form of regularization to make the predictions more equitable across demographic groups. We propose two novel spatiotemporal fairness metrics, a region-based fairness gap (RFG) and an individual-based fairness gap (IFG). Both quantify equity in a spatiotemporal context, but vary by whether demographics are labeled at the region level (RFG) or whether population distribution information is available (IFG). Experimental results on real bike share and ride share datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed model: FairST not only reduces the fairness gap by more than 80%, but can surprisingly achieve better accuracy than state-of-the-art yet fairness-oblivious methods including LSTMs, ConvLSTMs, and 3D CNN.