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Dependency Parsing for Spoken Dialog Systems

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Compared to constituency parsing and semantic role labeling, dependency parsing provides more clear relationships between predicates and arguments (Johansson and Nugues, 2008). Constituency parsers provide information about noun phrases in a sentence, but provide only limited information about relationships within a noun phrase. For example, in the sentence "What do you think about Google's privacy policy being reviewed by journalists from CNN?," a constituency parser would place "Google's privacy policy being reviewed by journalists from CNN" under a single phrasal node. Similarly, a semantic role labeling system would tend to label the same phrase as an argument of the verb, but it would not disambiguate the relationships within the phrase. Finally, NER only provides information about named entities which may or may not be the key semantic content of the sentence. Dependency parsers, by contrast, can provide information about relationships when a sentence contains multiple entities, even when those entities are within the same phrase. Identifying relationships between entities in a user utterance can help a dialog system formulate a more appropriate response. For instance, in the sentence about "Google's privacy policy" mentioned above, there are multiple entities for the system to consider. The system must determine the most important entity in the utterance in order to model the topic and generate an appropriate response.


Core Dependency Networks

AAAI Conferences

Many applications infer the structure of a probabilistic graphical model from data to elucidate the relationships between variables. But how can we train graphical models on a massive data set? In this paper, we show how to construct coresets---compressed data sets which can be used as proxy for the original data and have provably bounded worst case error---for Gaussian dependency networks (DNs), i.e., cyclic directed graphical models over Gaussians, where the parents of each variable are its Markov blanket. Specifically, we prove that Gaussian DNs admit coresets of size independent of the size of the data set. Unfortunately, this does not extend to DNs over members of the exponential family in general. As we will prove, Poisson DNs do not admit small coresets. Despite this worst-case result, we will provide an argument why our coreset construction for DNs can still work well in practice on count data.To corroborate our theoretical results, we empirically evaluated the resulting Core DNs on real data sets. The results demonstrate significant gains over no or naive sub-sampling, even in the case of count data.


Capturing Semantically Meaningful Word Dependencies with an Admixture of Poisson MRFs

Neural Information Processing Systems

We develop a fast algorithm for the Admixture of Poisson MRFs (APM) topic model and propose a novel metric to directly evaluate this model. The APM topic model recently introduced by Inouye et al. (2014) is the first topic model that allows for word dependencies within each topic unlike in previous topic models like LDA that assume independence between words within a topic. Research in both the semantic coherence of a topic models (Mimno et al. 2011, Newman et al. 2010) and measures of model fitness (Mimno & Blei 2011) provide strong support that explicitly modeling word dependencies---as in APM---could be both semantically meaningful and essential for appropriately modeling real text data. Though APM shows significant promise for providing a better topic model, APM has a high computational complexity because $O(p 2)$ parameters must be estimated where $p$ is the number of words (Inouye et al. could only provide results for datasets with $p 200$). In light of this, we develop a parallel alternating Newton-like algorithm for training the APM model that can handle $p 10 4$ as an important step towards scaling to large datasets.


Efficient Dependency-Guided Named Entity Recognition

AAAI Conferences

Named entity recognition (NER), which focuses on the extraction of semantically meaningful named entities and their semantic classes from text, serves as an indispensable component for several down-stream natural language processing (NLP) tasks such as relation extraction and event extraction. Dependency trees, on the other hand, also convey crucial semantic-level information. It has been shown previously that such information can be used to improve the performance of NER. In this work, we investigate on how to better utilize the structured information conveyed by dependency trees to improve the performance of NER. Specifically, unlike existing approaches which only exploit dependency information for designing local features, we show that certain global structured information of the dependency trees can be exploited when building NER models where such information can provide guided learning and inference. Through extensive experiments, we show that our proposed novel dependency-guided NER model performs competitively with models based on conventional semi-Markov conditional random fields, while requiring significantly less running time.


Dependency Injection for Beginner Training

#artificialintelligence

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