This is arguably the most important architecture for natural language processing (NLP) today. Specifically, we look at modeling frameworks such as the generative pretrained transformer (GPT), bidirectional encoder representations from transformers (BERT) and multilingual BERT (mBERT). These methods employ neural networks with more parameters than most deep convolutional and recurrent neural network models. Despite the larger size, they've exploded in popularity because they scale comparatively more effectively on parallel computing architecture. This enables even larger and more sophisticated models to be developed in practice. Until the arrival of the transformer, the dominant NLP models relied on recurrent and convolutional components. Additionally, the best sequence modeling and transduction problems, such as machine translation, rely on an encoder-decoder architecture with an attention mechanism to detect which parts of the input influence each part of the output. The transformer aims to replace the recurrent and convolutional components entirely with attention.
Discussions: Hacker News (65 points, 4 comments), Reddit r/MachineLearning (29 points, 3 comments) Translations: Chinese (Simplified), Japanese, Korean, Russian, Spanish Watch: MIT’s Deep Learning State of the Art lecture referencing this post In the previous post, we looked at Attention – a ubiquitous method in modern deep learning models. Attention is a concept that helped improve the performance of neural machine translation applications. In this post, we will look at The Transformer – a model that uses attention to boost the speed with which these models can be trained. The Transformers outperforms the Google Neural Machine Translation model in specific tasks. The biggest benefit, however, comes from how The Transformer lends itself to parallelization. It is in fact Google Cloud’s recommendation to use The Transformer as a reference model to use their Cloud TPU offering. So let’s try to break the model apart and look at how it functions. The Transformer was proposed in the paper Attention is All You Need. A TensorFlow implementation of it is available as a part of the Tensor2Tensor package. Harvard’s NLP group created a guide annotating the paper with PyTorch implementation. In this post, we will attempt to oversimplify things a bit and introduce the concepts one by one to hopefully make it easier to understand to people without in-depth knowledge of the subject matter. A High-Level Look Let’s begin by looking at the model as a single black box. In a machine translation application, it would take a sentence in one language, and output its translation in another.
Day by day the number of machine learning models is increasing at a pace. With this increasing rate, it is hard for beginners to choose an effective model to perform Natural Language Understanding (NLU) and Natural Language Generation (NLG) mechanisms. Researchers across the globe are working around the clock to achieve more progress in artificial intelligence to build agile and intuitive sequence-to-sequence learning models. And in recent times transformers are one such model which gained more prominence in the field of machine learning to perform speech-to-text activities. The wide availability of other sequence-to-sequence learning models like RNNs, LSTMs, and GRU always raises a challenge for beginners when they think about transformers.
Transformer Networks are deep learning models that learn context and meaning in sequential data by tracking the relationships between the sequences. Since the introduction of Transformer Networks in 2017 by Google Brain in their revolutionary paper "Attention is all you need", transformers have been outperforming conventional neural networks in various problem domains, like Neural Machine Translation, Text Summarization, Language Understanding, and other Natural Language Processing tasks. Along with this, they have also proved to be quite effective in Computer Vision tasks like Image Classification with Vision Transformers and Generative Networks as well. In this article, I will be trying to elaborate on my understanding of the attention mechanism through vision transformers and on sequence to sequence tasks through Transformer Networks. For problems in the Image Domain, like Image Classification and feature extraction from Images, Deep Convolutional Neural Network architectures like ResNet and Inception are used.
We know that we used logo from Transformers in the featured image, so if you are a toy/movies/cartoon fan, sorry to disappoint you. We won't cover any of those topics in this blog post. However, if you are data science and deep learning fan, you are in the right place. In this article, we explore the interesting architecture of Transformers. They are a special type of sequence-to-sequence models used for language modeling, machine translation, image captioning and text generation.