Flowers have an innate ability to bounce back after injury from falling branches or being trampled underfoot, according to a new study. Ecologists looked at a random sample of 23 native and cultivated flowers species in Australia, South America, North America and the UK. They performed a'non-lethal' reorientation of the species in the wild and returned at various times to document their recovery. Plants after injury were seen to bend and twist to ensure their leaves were again facing the Sun for photosynthesis. Even the most injured flowers could move back into the best position to ensure successful reproduction between 10 to 48 hours later, they found.
When an amateur swimmer tries to learn the butterfly, a couple of questions might come to mind in between gasps for air: Who invented this flummoxing stroke, and why? Professionals such as Michael Phelps make the butterfly looks effortless, an act of coördination, grace, and endurance; for beginners, it can look and feel like a wild, flailing doggy paddle. But these questions are as difficult to answer as the stroke is to master. As with other paradigm-shifting inventions, like jazz music and the croissant, the butterfly stroke is the result of a series of small innovations rather than of any single big one. Because of that, tracing the stroke's origin is difficult, an exercise in weighing disparate accounts.
There are five sets of new products. The "Focus Studio," designed with Microsoft's Surface Book and Surface Pro 4 in mind, gives workers "alone time to focus and get into flow, while also allowing quick shifts to two-person collaboration." Meanwhile, the "Duo Studio" lets designers work in pairs or individually via a Surface Studio all-in-one. It also includes a lounge area for creative review with others on the giant-screened Surface Hub, an interactive white board. The "Ideation Hub" is also a conference-style space that lets colleagues work on ideas in person or remotely on the Surface Hub.
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Flowers with an asymmetrical structure, like this pelargonium, will reorientate to encourage pollinators if their stems become damaged. Plants in the field layer may be susceptible to damage, with their stems bent or twisted by wind, falling objects, or trampling. For flowers specialized to attract insect pollinators, such accidents can cause changes in orientation that could decrease the chances of successful pollination. In experiments with a range of herbaceous species, Armbruster and Muchhala compared the postinjury responses of bilaterally symmetrical flowers with those of radially symmetrical flowers. Bilateral flowers mostly showed the ability to correct their position though reorientation of the floral stem or the floral sexual organs themselves, resulting in restoration of pollination efficiency.