Stephen William Hawking CH CBE FRS FRSA (8 January 1942 – 14 March 2018) was an English theoretical physicist, cosmologist, author and Director of Research at the Centre for Theoretical Cosmology within the University of Cambridge. His scientific works included a collaboration with Roger Penrose on gravitational singularity theorems in the framework of general relativity and the theoretical prediction that black holes emit radiation, often called Hawking radiation. Hawking was the first to set out a theory of cosmology explained by a union of the general theory of relativity and quantum mechanics. He was a vigorous supporter of the many-worlds interpretation of quantum mechanics. Hawking was an Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Arts (FRSA), a lifetime member of the Pontifical Academy of Sciences, and a recipient of the Presidential Medal of Freedom, the highest civilian award in the United States. In 2002, Hawking was ranked number 25 in the BBC's poll of the 100 Greatest Britons. He was the Lucasian Professor of Mathematics at the University of Cambridge between 1979 and 2009 and achieved commercial success with works of popular science in which he discusses his own theories and cosmology in general. His book, A Brief History of Time, appeared on the British Sunday Times best-seller list for a record-breaking 237 weeks. Hawking had a rare early-onset slow-progressing form of motor neurone disease (also known as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Lou Gehrig's disease), that gradually paralysed him over the decades. Even after the loss of his speech, he was still able to communicate through a speech-generating device, initially through use of a hand-held switch, and eventually by using a single cheek muscle. Hawking was born on 8 January 1942 in Oxford to Frank (1905–1986) and Isobel Hawking (née Walker; 1915–2013). Despite their families' financial constraints, both parents attended the University of Oxford, where Frank read medicine and Isobel read Philosophy, Politics and Economics. The two met shortly after the beginning of the Second World War at a medical research institute where Isobel was working as a secretary and Frank was working as a medical researcher. They lived in Highgate; but, as London was being bombed in those years, Isobel went to Oxford to give birth in greater safety. Hawking had two younger sisters, Philippa and Mary, and an adopted brother, Edward. In 1950, when Hawking's father became head of the division of parasitology at the National Institute for Medical Research, Hawking and his family moved to St Albans, Hertfordshire.
Donald Trump came in for heavy criticism when he retweeted posts by a British far-right group last November. And he became involved in a Twitter row with UK Prime Minister Theresa May afterwards. But the US president now says he knew "nothing" of the Britain First group when he shared three of its videos. In an interview with ITV's Piers Morgan, to be broadcast on Sunday, he says: "If you are telling me they're horrible people, horrible, racist people, I would certainly apologise if you'd like me to do that." We'll have reaction to the president's comments as it comes in.
Londoners have shown sympathy and solidarity after the terrorist attack in Westminster. People took to Twitter using the hashtags #WeStandTogether and #WeAreNotAfraid to show their defiance. It came as London Mayor Sadiq Khan announced a vigil for the victims at Trafalgar Square at 18:00 GMT. A minute's silence was also held at 09:33 GMT in memory of PC Keith Palmer. He was one of four people who died in the attack on Wednesday.
And even though he has 1,825 unread emails on his iPhone, which he brings out of his jeans pocket to show as proof during our interview in Paris, he'll answer every single one that's from a human being at some point in the day. That's a lot of time spent staring at a little screen, answering messages. Here's what Xavier Niel definitely is: a telecoms magnate worth $6.7 billion, and the 8th richest person in France. He's also spent hundreds of millions of his personal fortune trying to transform the country's button-down business culture into a hotbed for young entrepreneurs who can follow in his footsteps. Station F covers an area the size of six American football fields and has 1,000 startups working under one roof.
SPIEGEL: Mr. Minister, have you complained to the chancellor yet? SPIEGEL: Angela Merkel recently responded to the proposals from French President Emmanuel Macron on reforming the eurozone, even though you are responsible for currency policy. Did you let the chancellor steal the show? Scholz: Nonsense, Ms. Merkel and I developed the plans together over the past weeks. Now it is important to make progress in the negotiations. Ultimately, we in Europe need not only the approval of France, but of all member states.