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AnoNet: Weakly Supervised Anomaly Detection in Textured Surfaces

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Humans can easily detect a defect (anomaly) because it is different or salient when compared to the surface it resides on. Today, manual human visual inspection is still the norm because it is difficult to automate anomaly detection. Neural networks are a useful tool that can teach a machine to find defects. However, they require a lot of training examples to learn what a defect is and it is tedious and expensive to get these samples. We tackle the problem of teaching a network with a low number of training samples with a system we call AnoNet. AnoNet's architecture is similar to CompactCNN with the exceptions that (1) it is a fully convolutional network and does not use strided convolution; (2) it is shallow and compact which minimizes over-fitting by design; (3) the compact design constrains the size of intermediate features which allows training to be done without image downsizing; (4) the model footprint is low making it suitable for edge computation; and (5) the anomaly can be detected and localized despite the weak labelling. AnoNet learns to detect the underlying shape of the anomalies despite the weak annotation as well as preserves the spatial localization of the anomaly. Pre-seeding AnoNet with an engineered filter bank initialization technique reduces the total samples required for training and also achieves state-of-the-art performance. Compared to the CompactCNN, AnoNet achieved a massive 94% reduction of network parameters from 1.13 million to 64 thousand parameters. Experiments were conducted on four data-sets and results were compared against CompactCNN and DeepLabv3. AnoNet improved the performance on an average across all data-sets by 106% to an F1 score of 0.98 and by 13% to an AUROC value of 0.942. AnoNet can learn from a limited number of images. For one of the data-sets, AnoNet learnt to detect anomalies after a single pass through just 53 training images.


An Encoder-Decoder Based Approach for Anomaly Detection with Application in Additive Manufacturing

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a novel unsupervised deep learning approach that utilizes the encoder-decoder architecture for detecting anomalies in sequential sensor data collected during industrial manufacturing. Our approach is designed not only to detect whether there exists an anomaly at a given time step, but also to predict what will happen next in the (sequential) process. We demonstrate our approach on a dataset collected from a real-world testbed. The dataset contains images collected under both normal conditions and synthetic anomalies. We show that the encoder-decoder model is able to identify the injected anomalies in a modern manufacturing process in an unsupervised fashion. In addition, it also gives hints about the temperature non-uniformity of the testbed during manufacturing, which is what we are not aware of before doing the experiment.


Semi-supervised Anomaly Detection using AutoEncoders

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Anomaly detection refers to the task of finding unusual instances that stand out from the normal data. In several applications, these outliers or anomalous instances are of greater interest compared to the normal ones. Specifically in the case of industrial optical inspection and infrastructure asset management, finding these defects (anomalous regions) is of extreme importance. Traditionally and even today this process has been carried out manually. Humans rely on the saliency of the defects in comparison to the normal texture to detect the defects. However, manual inspection is slow, tedious, subjective and susceptible to human biases. Therefore, the automation of defect detection is desirable. But for defect detection lack of availability of a large number of anomalous instances and labelled data is a problem. In this paper, we present a convolutional auto-encoder architecture for anomaly detection that is trained only on the defect-free (normal) instances. For the test images, residual masks that are obtained by subtracting the original image from the auto-encoder output are thresholded to obtain the defect segmentation masks. The approach was tested on two data-sets and achieved an impressive average F1 score of 0.885. The network learnt to detect the actual shape of the defects even though no defected images were used during the training.


Automate Data Cleaning with Unsupervised Learning

#artificialintelligence

I like working with textual data. As for Computer Vision, in NLP nowadays there are a lot of ready accessible resources and opensource projects, which we can directly download or consume. Some of them are realy cool and permit us to speed up and bring to another level our projects. The most important thing we must not forgotten is that all these instruments aren't magic. Some of them declare high performances but they are nothing if we don't allow them to make the best.


Weightless Neural Network with Transfer Learning to Detect Distress in Asphalt

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Abstract-- The present paper shows a solution to the problem of automatic distress detection, more precisely the detection of holes in paved roads. To do so, the proposed solution uses a weightless neural network known as Wisard to decide whether an image of a road has any kind of cracks. In addition, the proposed architecture also shows how the use of transfer learning was able to improve the overall accuracy of the decision system. As a verification step of the research, an experiment was carried out using images from the streets at the Federal University of Tocantins, Brazil. The architecture of the developed solution presents a result of 85.71% accuracy in the dataset, proving to be superior to approaches of the state-of-the-art. I.INTRODUCTION In Brazil, most of the traffic is driven on asphalt roads.