An Encoder-Decoder Based Approach for Anomaly Detection with Application in Additive Manufacturing Machine Learning

We present a novel unsupervised deep learning approach that utilizes the encoder-decoder architecture for detecting anomalies in sequential sensor data collected during industrial manufacturing. Our approach is designed not only to detect whether there exists an anomaly at a given time step, but also to predict what will happen next in the (sequential) process. We demonstrate our approach on a dataset collected from a real-world testbed. The dataset contains images collected under both normal conditions and synthetic anomalies. We show that the encoder-decoder model is able to identify the injected anomalies in a modern manufacturing process in an unsupervised fashion. In addition, it also gives hints about the temperature non-uniformity of the testbed during manufacturing, which is what we are not aware of before doing the experiment.

Weightless Neural Network with Transfer Learning to Detect Distress in Asphalt Machine Learning

Abstract-- The present paper shows a solution to the problem of automatic distress detection, more precisely the detection of holes in paved roads. To do so, the proposed solution uses a weightless neural network known as Wisard to decide whether an image of a road has any kind of cracks. In addition, the proposed architecture also shows how the use of transfer learning was able to improve the overall accuracy of the decision system. As a verification step of the research, an experiment was carried out using images from the streets at the Federal University of Tocantins, Brazil. The architecture of the developed solution presents a result of 85.71% accuracy in the dataset, proving to be superior to approaches of the state-of-the-art. I.INTRODUCTION In Brazil, most of the traffic is driven on asphalt roads.

Deep Structured Cross-Modal Anomaly Detection Machine Learning

Anomaly detection is a fundamental problem in data mining field with many real-world applications. A vast majority of existing anomaly detection methods predominately focused on data collected from a single source. In real-world applications, instances often have multiple types of features, such as images (ID photos, finger prints) and texts (bank transaction histories, user online social media posts), resulting in the so-called multi-modal data. In this paper, we focus on identifying anomalies whose patterns are disparate across different modalities, i.e., cross-modal anomalies. Some of the data instances within a multi-modal context are often not anomalous when they are viewed separately in each individual modality, but contains inconsistent patterns when multiple sources are jointly considered. The existence of multi-modal data in many real-world scenarios brings both opportunities and challenges to the canonical task of anomaly detection. On the one hand, in multi-modal data, information of different modalities may complement each other in improving the detection performance. On the other hand, complicated distributions across different modalities call for a principled framework to characterize their inherent and complex correlations, which is often difficult to capture with conventional linear models. To this end, we propose a novel deep structured anomaly detection framework to identify the cross-modal anomalies embedded in the data. Experiments on real-world datasets demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed framework comparing with the state-of-the-art.

Anomaly Generation using Generative Adversarial Networks in Host Based Intrusion Detection Machine Learning

Generative adversarial networks have been able to generate striking results in various domains. This generation capability can be general while the networks gain deep understanding regarding the data distribution. In many domains, this data distribution consists of anomalies and normal data, with the anomalies commonly occurring relatively less, creating datasets that are imbalanced. The capabilities that generative adversarial networks offer can be leveraged to examine these anomalies and help alleviate the challenge that imbalanced datasets propose via creating synthetic anomalies. This anomaly generation can be specifically beneficial in domains that have costly data creation processes as well as inherently imbalanced datasets. One of the domains that fits this description is the host-based intrusion detection domain. In this work, ADFA-LD dataset is chosen as the dataset of interest containing system calls of small foot-print next generation attacks. The data is first converted into images, and then a Cycle-GAN is used to create images of anomalous data from images of normal data. The generated data is combined with the original dataset and is used to train a model to detect anomalies. By doing so, it is shown that the classification results are improved, with the AUC rising from 0.55 to 0.71, and the anomaly detection rate rising from 17.07% to 80.49%. The results are also compared to SMOTE, showing the potential presented by generative adversarial networks in anomaly generation.

Deep Learning for Detecting Building Defects Using Convolutional Neural Networks Artificial Intelligence

Clients are increasingly looking for fast and effective means to quickly and frequently survey and communicate the condition of their buildings so that essential repairs and maintenance work can be done in a proactive and timely manner before it becomes too dangerous and expensive. Traditional methods for this type of work commonly comprise of engaging building surveyors to undertake a condition assessment which involves a lengthy site inspection to produce a systematic recording of the physical condition of the building elements, including cost estimates of immediate and projected long-term costs of renewal, repair and maintenance of the building. Current asset condition assessment procedures are extensively time consuming, laborious, and expensive and pose health and safety threats to surveyors, particularly at height and roof levels which are difficult to access. This paper aims at evaluating the application of convolutional neural networks (CNN) towards an automated detection and localisation of key building defects, e.g., mould, deterioration, and stain, from images. The proposed model is based on pre-trained CNN classifier of VGG-16 (later compaired with ResNet-50, and Inception models), with class activation mapping (CAM) for object localisation. The challenges and limitations of the model in real-life applications have been identified. The proposed model has proven to be robust and able to accurately detect and localise building defects. The approach is being developed with the potential to scale-up and further advance to support automated detection of defects and deterioration of buildings in real-time using mobile devices and drones.