Many biomolecular motors catalyze the hydrolysis of chemical fuels, such as adenosine triphosphate, and use the energy released to direct motion through information ratchet mechanisms. Here we describe chemically-driven artificial rotary and linear molecular motors that operate through a fundamentally different type of mechanism. The directional rotation of - and catenane rotary molecular motors and the transport of substrates away from equilibrium by a linear molecular pump are induced by acid-base oscillations. The changes simultaneously switch the binding site affinities and the labilities of barriers on the track, creating an energy ratchet. The linear and rotary molecular motors are driven by aliquots of a chemical fuel, trichloroacetic acid.
FILE - In this April 14, 2017, file photo, law enforcement investigate a quadruple fatal car accident on Riverside Road in St. Joseph, Mo. New data show U.S. motor vehicle deaths and injuries were down slightly in the first six months of 2017, although they were still significantly higher than they were two years ago. The preliminary figures were compiled by the National Safety Council, which gets its data from state governments.
FILE - In this May 13, 2015 file photo, Toyota Motor Corp. President Akio Toyoda, left, and Mazda Motor Corp. President Masamichi Kogai pose for photographers prior to a press conference in Tokyo. Japanese automakers Toyota Motor Corp. and Mazda Motor Corp. are partnering in electric vehicles with a deal expected to be announced later Friday, Aug. 4, 2017.
A man with motor neurone disease (MND) is trialling a voice synthesiser with a Yorkshire accent. Mr Liversidge's speech is starting to slur, but scientists aim to "repair" the flaws in it with the aid of'voice donors'. About 30 Yorkshiremen are needed to program a voice for Mr Liversidge, which he will control using eye movements.