Collaborating Authors

The First AI4TSP Competition: Learning to Solve Stochastic Routing Problems Artificial Intelligence

The TSP is one of the classical combinatorial optimization problems, with many variants inspired by real-world applications. This first competition asked the participants to develop algorithms to solve a time-dependent orienteering problem with stochastic weights and time windows (TD-OPSWTW). It focused on two types of learning approaches: surrogate-based optimization and deep reinforcement learning. In this paper, we describe the problem, the setup of the competition, the winning methods, and give an overview of the results. The winning methods described in this work have advanced the state-of-the-art in using AI for stochastic routing problems. Overall, by organizing this competition we have introduced routing problems as an interesting problem setting for AI researchers. The simulator of the problem has been made open-source and can be used by other researchers as a benchmark for new AI methods.

The Graph Neural Networking Challenge: A Worldwide Competition for Education in AI/ML for Networks Artificial Intelligence

During the last decade, Machine Learning (ML) has increasingly become a hot topic in the field of Computer Networks and is expected to be gradually adopted for a plethora of control, monitoring and management tasks in real-world deployments. This poses the need to count on new generations of students, researchers and practitioners with a solid background in ML applied to networks. During 2020, the International Telecommunication Union (ITU) has organized the "ITU AI/ML in 5G challenge'', an open global competition that has introduced to a broad audience some of the current main challenges in ML for networks. This large-scale initiative has gathered 23 different challenges proposed by network operators, equipment manufacturers and academia, and has attracted a total of 1300+ participants from 60+ countries. This paper narrates our experience organizing one of the proposed challenges: the "Graph Neural Networking Challenge 2020''. We describe the problem presented to participants, the tools and resources provided, some organization aspects and participation statistics, an outline of the top-3 awarded solutions, and a summary with some lessons learned during all this journey. As a result, this challenge leaves a curated set of educational resources openly available to anyone interested in the topic.

Where the Action is: Let's make Reinforcement Learning for Stochastic Dynamic Vehicle Routing Problems work! Artificial Intelligence

There has been a paradigm-shift in urban logistic services in the last years; demand for real-time, instant mobility and delivery services grows. This poses new challenges to logistic service providers as the underlying stochastic dynamic vehicle routing problems (SDVRPs) require anticipatory real-time routing actions. Searching the combinatorial action space for efficient routing actions is by itself a complex task of mixed-integer programming (MIP) well-known by the operations research community. This complexity is now multiplied by the challenge of evaluating such actions with respect to their effectiveness given future dynamism and uncertainty, a potentially ideal case for reinforcement learning (RL) well-known by the computer science community. For solving SDVRPs, joint work of both communities is needed, but as we show, essentially non-existing. Both communities focus on their individual strengths leaving potential for improvement. Our survey paper highlights this potential in research originating from both communities. We point out current obstacles in SDVRPs and guide towards joint approaches to overcome them.

Analytics and Machine Learning in Vehicle Routing Research Artificial Intelligence

The Vehicle Routing Problem (VRP) is one of the most intensively studied combinatorial optimisation problems for which numerous models and algorithms have been proposed. To tackle the complexities, uncertainties and dynamics involved in real-world VRP applications, Machine Learning (ML) methods have been used in combination with analytical approaches to enhance problem formulations and algorithmic performance across different problem solving scenarios. However, the relevant papers are scattered in several traditional research fields with very different, sometimes confusing, terminologies. This paper presents a first, comprehensive review of hybrid methods that combine analytical techniques with ML tools in addressing VRP problems. Specifically, we review the emerging research streams on ML-assisted VRP modelling and ML-assisted VRP optimisation. We conclude that ML can be beneficial in enhancing VRP modelling, and improving the performance of algorithms for both online and offline VRP optimisations. Finally, challenges and future opportunities of VRP research are discussed.

Deep Reinforcement Learning for Demand Driven Services in Logistics and Transportation Systems: A Survey Artificial Intelligence

Recent technology development brings the booming of numerous new Demand-Driven Services (DDS) into urban lives, including ridesharing, on-demand delivery, express systems and warehousing. In DDS, a service loop is an elemental structure, including its service worker, the service providers and corresponding service targets. The service workers should transport either humans or parcels from the providers to the target locations. Various planning tasks within DDS can thus be classified into two individual stages: 1) Dispatching, which is to form service loops from demand/supply distributions, and 2)Routing, which is to decide specific serving orders within the constructed loops. Generating high-quality strategies in both stages is important to develop DDS but faces several challenging. Meanwhile, deep reinforcement learning (DRL) has been developed rapidly in recent years. It is a powerful tool to solve these problems since DRL can learn a parametric model without relying on too many problem-based assumptions and optimize long-term effect by learning sequential decisions. In this survey, we first define DDS, then highlight common applications and important decision/control problems within. For each problem, we comprehensively introduce the existing DRL solutions, and further summarize them in \textit{\_Survey}. We also introduce open simulation environments for development and evaluation of DDS applications. Finally, we analyze remaining challenges and discuss further research opportunities in DRL solutions for DDS.