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A New Framework for Machine Intelligence: Concepts and Prototype

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Machine learning (ML) and artificial intelligence (AI) have become hot topics in many information processing areas, from chatbots to scientific data analysis. At the same time, there is uncertainty about the possibility of extending predominant ML technologies to become general solutions with continuous learning capabilities. Here, a simple, yet comprehensive, theoretical framework for intelligent systems is presented. A combination of Mirror Compositional Representations (MCR) and a Solution-Critic Loop (SCL) is proposed as a generic approach for different types of problems. A prototype implementation is presented for document comparison using English Wikipedia corpus.


Cognitive Explainers of Graph Neural Networks Based on Medical Concepts

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Although deep neural networks (DNN) have achieved state-of-the-art performance in various fields, some unexpected errors are often found in the neural network, which is very dangerous for some tasks requiring high reliability and high security.The non-transparency and unexplainably of CNN still limit its application in many fields, such as medical care and finance. Despite current studies that have been committed to visualizing the decision process of DNN, most of these methods focus on the low level and do not take into account the prior knowledge of medicine.In this work, we propose an interpretable framework based on key medical concepts, enabling CNN to explain from the perspective of doctors' cognition.We propose an interpretable automatic recognition framework for the ultrasonic standard plane, which uses a concept-based graph convolutional neural network to construct the relationships between key medical concepts, to obtain an interpretation consistent with a doctor's cognition.


Multi-Factors Aware Dual-Attentional Knowledge Tracing

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

With the increasing demands of personalized learning, knowledge tracing has become important which traces students' knowledge states based on their historical practices. Factor analysis methods mainly use two kinds of factors which are separately related to students and questions to model students' knowledge states. These methods use the total number of attempts of students to model students' learning progress and hardly highlight the impact of the most recent relevant practices. Besides, current factor analysis methods ignore rich information contained in questions. In this paper, we propose Multi-Factors Aware Dual-Attentional model (MF-DAKT) which enriches question representations and utilizes multiple factors to model students' learning progress based on a dual-attentional mechanism. More specifically, we propose a novel student-related factor which records the most recent attempts on relevant concepts of students to highlight the impact of recent exercises. To enrich questions representations, we use a pre-training method to incorporate two kinds of question information including questions' relation and difficulty level. We also add a regularization term about questions' difficulty level to restrict pre-trained question representations to fine-tuning during the process of predicting students' performance. Moreover, we apply a dual-attentional mechanism to differentiate contributions of factors and factor interactions to final prediction in different practice records. At last, we conduct experiments on several real-world datasets and results show that MF-DAKT can outperform existing knowledge tracing methods. We also conduct several studies to validate the effects of each component of MF-DAKT.


Demystifying Brain Tumour Segmentation Networks: Interpretability and Uncertainty Analysis

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The accurate automatic segmentation of gliomas and its intra-tumoral structures is important not only for treatment planning but also for follow-up evaluations. Several methods based on 2D and 3D Deep Neural Networks (DNN) have been developed to segment brain tumors and to classify different categories of tumors from different MRI modalities. However, these networks are often black-box models and do not provide any evidence regarding the process they take to perform this task. Increasing transparency and interpretability of such deep learning techniques are necessary for the complete integration of such methods into medical practice. In this paper, we explore various techniques to explain the functional organization of brain tumor segmentation models and to extract visualizations of internal concepts to understand how these networks achieve highly accurate tumor segmentations. We use the BraTS 2018 dataset to train three different networks with standard architectures and outline similarities and differences in the process that these networks take to segment brain tumors. We show that brain tumor segmentation networks learn certain human-understandable disentangled concepts on a filter level. We also show that they take a top-down or hierarchical approach to localizing the different parts of the tumor. We then extract visualizations of some internal feature maps and also provide a measure of uncertainty with regards to the outputs of the models to give additional qualitative evidence about the predictions of these networks. We believe that the emergence of such human-understandable organization and concepts might aid in the acceptance and integration of such methods in medical diagnosis.


Inductive Biases for Deep Learning of Higher-Level Cognition

arXiv.org Machine Learning

A fascinating hypothesis is that human and animal intelligence could be explained by a few principles (rather than an encyclopedic list of heuristics). If that hypothesis was correct, we could more easily both understand our own intelligence and build intelligent machines. Just like in physics, the principles themselves would not be sufficient to predict the behavior of complex systems like brains, and substantial computation might be needed to simulate human-like intelligence. This hypothesis would suggest that studying the kind of inductive biases that humans and animals exploit could help both clarify these principles and provide inspiration for AI research and neuroscience theories. Deep learning already exploits several key inductive biases, and this work considers a larger list, focusing on those which concern mostly higher-level and sequential conscious processing. The objective of clarifying these particular principles is that they could potentially help us build AI systems benefiting from humans' abilities in terms of flexible out-of-distribution and systematic generalization, which is currently an area where a large gap exists between state-of-the-art machine learning and human intelligence.