A common need when you are analyzing real-world data-sets is determining which data point stand out as being different to all others data points. Such data points are known as anomalies. This article was originally published on Medium by Davis David. In this article, you will learn a couple of Machine Learning-Based Approaches for Anomaly Detection and then show how to apply one of these approaches to solve a specific use case for anomaly detection (Credit Fraud detection) in part two. A common need when you analyzing real-world data-sets is determining which data point stand out as being different to all others data points.
As spacecraft send back increasing amounts of telemetry data, improved anomaly detection systems are needed to lessen the monitoring burden placed on operations engineers and reduce operational risk. Current spacecraft monitoring systems only target a subset of anomaly types and often require costly expert knowledge to develop and maintain due to challenges involving scale and complexity. We demonstrate the effectiveness of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTMs) networks, a type of Recurrent Neural Network (RNN), in overcoming these issues using expert-labeled telemetry anomaly data from the Soil Moisture Active Passive (SMAP) satellite and the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) rover, Curiosity. We also propose a complementary unsupervised and nonparametric anomaly thresholding approach developed during a pilot implementation of an anomaly detection system for SMAP, and offer false positive mitigation strategies along with other key improvements and lessons learned during development.
A general Intrusion Detection System (IDS) fundamentally acts based on an Anomaly Detection System (ADS) or a combination of anomaly detection and signature-based methods, gathering and analyzing observations and reporting possible suspicious cases to a system administrator or the other users for further investigation. One of the notorious challenges which even the state-of-the-art ADS and IDS have not overcome is the possibility of a very high false alarms rate. Especially in very large and complex system settings, the amount of low-level alarms easily overwhelms administrators and increases their tendency to ignore alerts. We can group the existing false alarm mitigation strategies into two main families: The first group covers the methods directly customized and applied toward higher quality anomaly scoring in ADS. The second group includes approaches utilized in the related contexts as a filtering method toward decreasing the possibility of false alarm rates. Given the lack of a comprehensive study regarding possible ways to mitigate the false alarm rates, in this paper, we review the existing techniques for false alarm mitigation in ADS and present the pros and cons of each technique. We also study a few promising techniques applied in the signature-based IDS and other related contexts like commercial Security Information and Event Management (SIEM) tools, which are applicable and promising in the ADS context. Finally, we conclude with some directions for future research.
It is true that the Industrial Internet of Things will change the world someday. So far, it is the abundance of data that makes the world spin faster. Piled in sometimes unmanageable datasets, big data turned from the Holy Grail into a problem pushing businesses and organizations to make faster decisions in real-time. One way to process data faster and more efficiently is to detect abnormal events, changes or shifts in datasets. Thus, anomaly detection, a technology that relies on Artificial Intelligence to identify abnormal behavior within the pool of collected data, has become one of the main objectives of the Industrial IoT.
Anomaly detection in supercomputers is a very difficult problem due to the big scale of the systems and the high number of components. The current state of the art for automated anomaly detection employs Machine Learning methods or statistical regression models in a supervised fashion, meaning that the detection tool is trained to distinguish among a fixed set of behaviour classes (healthy and unhealthy states). We propose a novel approach for anomaly detection in High Performance Computing systems based on a Machine (Deep) Learning technique, namely a type of neural network called autoencoder. The key idea is to train a set of autoencoders to learn the normal (healthy) behaviour of the supercomputer nodes and, after training, use them to identify abnormal conditions. This is different from previous approaches which where based on learning the abnormal condition, for which there are much smaller datasets (since it is very hard to identify them to begin with). We test our approach on a real supercomputer equipped with a fine-grained, scalable monitoring infrastructure that can provide large amount of data to characterize the system behaviour. The results are extremely promising: after the training phase to learn the normal system behaviour, our method is capable of detecting anomalies that have never been seen before with a very good accuracy (values ranging between 88% and 96%).