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Health State Estimation

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Life's most valuable asset is health. Continuously understanding the state of our health and modeling how it evolves is essential if we wish to improve it. Given the opportunity that people live with more data about their life today than any other time in history, the challenge rests in interweaving this data with the growing body of knowledge to compute and model the health state of an individual continually. This dissertation presents an approach to build a personal model and dynamically estimate the health state of an individual by fusing multi-modal data and domain knowledge. The system is stitched together from four essential abstraction elements: 1. the events in our life, 2. the layers of our biological systems (from molecular to an organism), 3. the functional utilities that arise from biological underpinnings, and 4. how we interact with these utilities in the reality of daily life. Connecting these four elements via graph network blocks forms the backbone by which we instantiate a digital twin of an individual. Edges and nodes in this graph structure are then regularly updated with learning techniques as data is continuously digested. Experiments demonstrate the use of dense and heterogeneous real-world data from a variety of personal and environmental sensors to monitor individual cardiovascular health state. State estimation and individual modeling is the fundamental basis to depart from disease-oriented approaches to a total health continuum paradigm. Precision in predicting health requires understanding state trajectory. By encasing this estimation within a navigational approach, a systematic guidance framework can plan actions to transition a current state towards a desired one. This work concludes by presenting this framework of combining the health state and personal graph model to perpetually plan and assist us in living life towards our goals.


Fake News: A Survey of Research, Detection Methods, and Opportunities

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The explosive growth in fake news and its erosion to democracy, justice, and public trust has increased the demand for fake news analysis, detection and intervention. This survey comprehensively and systematically reviews fake news research. The survey identifies and specifies fundamental theories across various disciplines, e.g., psychology and social science, to facilitate and enhance the interdisciplinary research of fake news. Current fake news research is reviewed, summarized and evaluated. These studies focus on fake news from four perspective: (1) the false knowledge it carries, (2) its writing style, (3) its propagation patterns, and (4) the credibility of its creators and spreaders. We characterize each perspective with various analyzable and utilizable information provided by news and its spreaders, various strategies and frameworks that are adaptable, and techniques that are applicable. By reviewing the characteristics of fake news and open issues in fake news studies, we highlight some potential research tasks at the end of this survey.


Dynamic Search -- Optimizing the Game of Information Seeking

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

This article presents the emerging topic of dynamic search (DS). To position dynamic search in a larger research landscape, the article discusses in detail its relationship to related research topics and disciplines. The article reviews approaches to modeling dynamics during information seeking, with an emphasis on Reinforcement Learning (RL)-enabled methods. Details are given for how different approaches are used to model interactions among the human user, the search system, and the environment. The paper ends with a review of evaluations of dynamic search systems.


ColdRoute: Effective Routing of Cold Questions in Stack Exchange Sites

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Routing questions in Community Question Answer services (CQAs) such as Stack Exchange sites is a well-studied problem. Yet, cold-start -- a phenomena observed when a new question is posted is not well addressed by existing approaches. Additionally, cold questions posted by new askers present significant challenges to state-of-the-art approaches. We propose ColdRoute to address these challenges. ColdRoute is able to handle the task of routing cold questions posted by new or existing askers to matching experts. Specifically, we use Factorization Machines on the one-hot encoding of critical features such as question tags and compare our approach to well-studied techniques such as CQARank and semantic matching (LDA, BoW, and Doc2Vec). Using data from eight stack exchange sites, we are able to improve upon the routing metrics (Precision$@1$, Accuracy, MRR) over the state-of-the-art models such as semantic matching by $159.5\%$,$31.84\%$, and $40.36\%$ for cold questions posted by existing askers, and $123.1\%$, $27.03\%$, and $34.81\%$ for cold questions posted by new askers respectively.


Modeling Product Search Relevance in e-Commerce

arXiv.org Machine Learning

With the rapid growth of e-Commerce, online product search has emerged as a popular and effective paradigm for customers to find desired products and engage in online shopping. However, there is still a big gap between the products that customers really desire to purchase and relevance of products that are suggested in response to a query from the customer. In this paper, we propose a robust way of predicting relevance scores given a search query and a product, using techniques involving machine learning, natural language processing and information retrieval. We compare conventional information retrieval models such as BM25 and Indri with deep learning models such as word2vec, sentence2vec and paragraph2vec. We share some of our insights and findings from our experiments.