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Enabling fairer data clusters for machine learning

#artificialintelligence

Research published recently by CSE investigators can make training machine learning (ML) models fairer and faster. With a tool called AlloX, Prof. Mosharaf Chowdhury and a team from Stony Brook University developed a new way to fairly schedule high volumes of ML jobs in data centers that make use of multiple different types of computing hardware, like CPUs, GPUs, and specialized accelerators. As these so-called heterogeneous clusters grow to be the norm, fair scheduling systems like AlloX will become essential to their efficient operation. This project is a new step for Chowdhury's lab, which has recently published a number of tools aimed at speeding up the process of training and testing ML models. Their past projects Tiresias and Salus sped up GPU resource sharing at multiple scales: both within a single GPU (Salus) and across many GPUs in a cluster (Tiresias).


Themis: Fair and Efficient GPU Cluster Scheduling

#artificialintelligence

For facilitating the execution of distributed Machine Learning (ML) training workloads, GPU clusters are the mainstream infrastructure. However, when multiple of these workloads execute on a shared cluster, a significant contention occurs. The authors of Themis [1] mention that available cluster scheduling mechanisms are not fit for ML training workloads' unique characteristics. ML training workloads are usually long-running jobs that need to be gang-scheduled, and their performance is sensitive to tasks' relative placement. They propose Themis [1] as a new scheduling framework for ML training workloads.


Evaluating Spatial Accelerator Architectures with Tiled Matrix-Matrix Multiplication

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

There is a growing interest in custom spatial accelerators for machine learning applications. These accelerators employ a spatial array of processing elements (PEs) interacting via custom buffer hierarchies and networks-on-chip. The efficiency of these accelerators comes from employing optimized dataflow (i.e., spatial/temporal partitioning of data across the PEs and fine-grained scheduling) strategies to optimize data reuse. The focus of this work is to evaluate these accelerator architectures using a tiled general matrix-matrix multiplication (GEMM) kernel. To do so, we develop a framework that finds optimized mappings (dataflow and tile sizes) for a tiled GEMM for a given spatial accelerator and workload combination, leveraging an analytical cost model for runtime and energy. Our evaluations over five spatial accelerators demonstrate that the tiled GEMM mappings systematically generated by our framework achieve high performance on various GEMM workloads and accelerators.


Enabling Level-4 Autonomous Driving on a Single $1k Off-the-Shelf Card

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Autonomous driving is of great interest in both research and industry. The high cost has been one of the major roadblocks that slow down the development and adoption of autonomous driving in practice. This paper, for the first-time, shows that it is possible to run level-4 (i.e., fully autonomous driving) software on a single off-the-shelf card (Jetson AGX Xavier) for less than $1k, an order of magnitude less than the state-of-the-art systems, while meeting all the requirements of latency. The success comes from the resolution of some important issues shared by existing practices through a series of measures and innovations. The study overturns the common perceptions of the computing resources required by level-4 autonomous driving, points out a promising path for the industry to lower the cost, and suggests a number of research opportunities for rethinking the architecture, software design, and optimizations of autonomous driving.


BaPipe: Exploration of Balanced Pipeline Parallelism for DNN Training

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The size of deep neural networks (DNNs) grows rapidly as the complexity of the machine learning algorithm increases. To satisfy the requirement of computation and memory of DNN training, distributed deep learning based on model parallelism has been widely recognized. We propose a new pipeline parallelism training framework, BaPipe, which can automatically explore pipeline parallelism training methods and balanced partition strategies for DNN distributed training. In BaPipe, each accelerator calculates the forward propagation and backward propagation of different parts of networks to implement the intra-batch pipeline parallelism strategy. BaPipe uses a new load balancing automatic exploration strategy that considers the parameters of DNN models and the computation, memory, and communication resources of accelerator clusters. We have trained different DNNs such as VGG-16, ResNet-50, and GNMT on GPU clusters and simulated the performance of different FPGA clusters. Compared with state-of-the-art data parallelism and pipeline parallelism frameworks, BaPipe provides up to 3.2x speedup and 4x memory reduction in various platforms.