By using this "Contrivance," "the most ignorant Person at a reasonable Charge, and with a little bodily Labour, may write Books in Philosophy, Poetry, Politicks, Law, Mathematicks, and Theology, with the least Assistance from Genius or study." Bayesian inference will become a leading approach in machine learning. The boat was equipped with, as Tesla described, "a borrowed mind." The word "robot" comes from the word "robota" (work). It features a robot double of a peasant girl, Maria, which unleashes chaos in Berlin of 2026--it was the first robot depicted on film, inspiring the Art Deco look of C-3PO in Star Wars.
Artificial intelligence owes a lot of its smarts to Judea Pearl. In the 1980s he led efforts that allowed machines to reason probabilistically. In his latest book, "The Book of Why: The New Science of Cause and Effect," he argues that artificial intelligence has been handicapped by an incomplete understanding of what intelligence really is. Three decades ago, a prime challenge in artificial intelligence research was to program machines to associate a potential cause to a set of observable conditions. Pearl figured out how to do that using a scheme called Bayesian networks.
Recent increases in computing power, coupled with rapid growth in the availability and quantity of data have rekindled our interest in the theory and applications of artificial intelligence (AI). However, for AI to be confidently rolled out by industries and governments, users want greater transparency through explainable AI (XAI) systems. The author introduces XAI concepts, and gives an overview of areas in need of further exploration--such as type-2 fuzzy logic systems--to ensure such systems can be fully understood and analyzed by the lay user.
But the real threat is much bigger--and not just from human misconduct, but from the machines themselves. The research into complex systems shows how behavior can emerge that is much more unpredictable than the sum of individual actions. On one level this means human societies can behave very differently to what you might expect just looking at individual behavior. But it can also apply to technology. Even ecosystems of relatively simple AI programs--what we call stupid, good bots--can surprise us, and even when the individual bots are behaving well.
Christina is audience development editor. After graduating from the University of Nottingham reading philosophy and theology in 2013, Christina joined a tech start-up specialising in mobile apps. She has a keen interest in the mobile platform and innovative tech. In recent years AI has brought us some pretty impressive and widely used tech, from the image recognition being used by Facebook to speech recognition technology at work in Amazon's Alexa or Apple's Siri. It's these breakthroughs in deep learning and neural networks that have led to some of the most exciting yet also worrying times in tech.