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Artificial Intelligence Governance and Ethics: Global Perspectives

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Artificial intelligence (AI) is a technology which is increasingly being utilised in society and the economy worldwide, and its implementation is planned to become more prevalent in coming years. AI is increasingly being embedded in our lives, supplementing our pervasive use of digital technologies. But this is being accompanied by disquiet over problematic and dangerous implementations of AI, or indeed, even AI itself deciding to do dangerous and problematic actions, especially in fields such as the military, medicine and criminal justice. These developments have led to concerns about whether and how AI systems adhere, and will adhere to ethical standards. These concerns have stimulated a global conversation on AI ethics, and have resulted in various actors from different countries and sectors issuing ethics and governance initiatives and guidelines for AI. Such developments form the basis for our research in this report, combining our international and interdisciplinary expertise to give an insight into what is happening in Australia, China, Europe, India and the US.


China embraces digital future with growing computing power

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A recent industry report has highlighted China's impressive advances in computing power, ranking the country as one of the best among major economies in the field. The report, jointly released by the Tsinghua University, the International Data Corporation and Chinese IT firm Inspur Information, comprehensively assesses the computing power, efficiency, application and infrastructure of 15 major economies. Noting that computing power has become the driving force in promoting the digital economy, the report said increasing investment in this sector will have an amplified and long-term effect on economic growth. In the context of the booming cloud computing, artificial intelligence, 5G, among other emerging technologies, analysts believe that computing power has become an important infrastructure that will shape China's future technological landscape. According to a recent policy announcement, China has started work on a mega project to build an integrated national big data system to improve overall computing power and resource efficiency.


Confucius, Cyberpunk and Mr. Science: Comparing AI ethics between China and the EU

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

The exponential development and application of artificial intelligence triggered an unprecedented global concern for potential social and ethical issues. Stakeholders from different industries, international foundations, governmental organisations and standards institutions quickly improvised and created various codes of ethics attempting to regulate AI. A major concern is the large homogeneity and presumed consensualism around these principles. While it is true that some ethical doctrines, such as the famous Kantian deontology, aspire to universalism, they are however not universal in practice. In fact, ethical pluralism is more about differences in which relevant questions to ask rather than different answers to a common question. When people abide by different moral doctrines, they tend to disagree on the very approach to an issue. Even when people from different cultures happen to agree on a set of common principles, it does not necessarily mean that they share the same understanding of these concepts and what they entail. In order to better understand the philosophical roots and cultural context underlying ethical principles in AI, we propose to analyse and compare the ethical principles endorsed by the Chinese National New Generation Artificial Intelligence Governance Professional Committee (CNNGAIGPC) and those elaborated by the European High-level Expert Group on AI (HLEGAI). China and the EU have very different political systems and diverge in their cultural heritages. In our analysis, we wish to highlight that principles that seem similar a priori may actually have different meanings, derived from different approaches and reflect distinct goals.


Strengthening international cooperation on AI

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Since 2017, when Canada became the first country to adopt a national AI strategy, at least 60 countries have adopted some form of policy for artificial intelligence (AI). The prospect of an estimated boost of 16 percent, or US$13 trillion, to global output by 2030 has led to an unprecedented race to promote AI uptake across industry, consumer markets, and government services. Global corporate investment in AI has reportedly reached US$60 billion in 2020 and is projected to more than double by 2025. At the same time, the work on developing global standards for AI has led to significant developments in various international bodies. These encompass both technical aspects of AI (in standards development organizations (SDOs) such as the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), the International Electrotechnical Commission (IEC), and the Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers (IEEE) among others) and the ethical and policy dimensions of responsible AI.


What you need to know about China's AI ethics rules

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Late last year, China's Ministry of Science and Technology issued guidelines on artificial intelligence ethics. The rules stress user rights and data control while aligning with Beijing's goal of reining in big tech. China is now trailblazing the regulation of AI technologies, and the rest of the world needs to pay attention to what it's doing and why. The European Union had issued a preliminary draft of AI-related rules in April 2021, but we've seen nothing final. In the United States, the notion of ethical AI has gotten some traction, but there aren't any overarching regulations or universally accepted best practices.