Document recommendation systems for locating relevant literature have mostly relied on methods developed a decade ago. This is largely due to the lack of a large offline gold-standard benchmark of relevant documents that cover a variety of research fields such that newly developed literature search techniques can be compared, improved and translated into practice. To overcome this bottleneck, we have established the RElevant LIterature SearcH consortium consisting of more than 1500 scientists from 84 countries, who have collectively annotated the relevance of over 180 000 PubMed-listed articles with regard to their respective seed (input) article/s. The majority of annotations were contributed by highly experienced, original authors of the seed articles. The collected data cover 76% of all unique PubMed Medical Subject Headings descriptors. No systematic biases were observed across different experience levels, research fields or time spent on annotations.
Artificial intelligence, or AI, is largely an experimental science—at least as much progress has been made by building and analyzing programs as by examining theoretical questions. MYCIN is one of several well-known programs that embody some intelligence and provide data on the extent to which intelligent behavior can be programmed. As with other AI programs, its development was slow and not always in a forward direction. But we feel we learned some useful lessons in the course of nearly a decade of work on MYCIN and related programs. In this book we share the results of many experiments performed in that time, and we try to paint a coherent picture of the work. The book is intended to be a critical analysis of several pieces of related research, performed by a large number of scientists. We believe that the whole field of AI will benefit from such attempts to take a detailed retrospective look at experiments, for in this way the scientific foundations of the field will gradually be defined. It is for all these reasons that we have prepared this analysis of the MYCIN experiments.
The complete book in a single file.
Treatment plans for troubled teens are highly specialized. Designed to restore young people struggling with issues such as: anger, oppositional defiant disorder (ODD), attention deficit disorder (ADD), substance abuse, depression, grief and loss, adoption, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), eating disorders, self-harm, or rebellion, just to name a few. Located in Idaho, near the Sawtooth Mountains, we serve families from all over the U.S. Most of our parents and clients can come from California, Texas, Washington, Oregon, Illinois, Idaho, Colorado, Nevada, Georgia, Florida, New York, Connecticut, Massachusetts, Maine, and Tennessee just to list a few. Several families also come to us from overseas.
On bad days, five new babies are born in withdrawal from opioids at Cabell County-Huntington Hospital in southern West Virginia. In the neonatal therapeutic unit, there are zero unoccupied beds, but staff can't turn the infants away. On one week in mid-August, the unit held 27 newborn babies in a space designed for 15. The trademark hum and ding of monitors and alarms are absent from this neonatal unit. That's by design -- those noises overstimulate babies born addicted to opioids and going through withdrawal. When the babies cry, nurses don't bounce them; they sway from side to side. They don't smile at them – that's overwhelming, too.
Rates of HIV infection among men who have sex with men are highest in six Southern states and the District of Columbia, according to a new analysis, conducted by researchers at Emory University. In these states -- South Carolina, Alabama, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi, and Georgia -- more than 15 percent of men who have sex with men were HIV-positive in 2012. And in Louisiana, Mississippi, and South Carolina, the rates of diagnosed HIV prevalence among men who have sex with men were nearly twice that of the national rate, the researchers reported Tuesday. When the authors looked at the data on a city level, 21 of the top 25 cities were in the South. In five cities -- Jackson, Miss., Columbia, S.C., El Paso, Texas, Augusta, Ga., and Baton Rouge, La. -- at least a quarter of all men who have sex with men were living with HIV in 2012.