Comparing Probabilistic Models for Melodic Sequences

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Modelling the real world complexity of music is a challenge for machine learning. We address the task of modeling melodic sequences from the same music genre. We perform a comparative analysis of two probabilistic models; a Dirichlet Variable Length Markov Model (Dirichlet-VMM) and a Time Convolutional Restricted Boltzmann Machine (TC-RBM). We show that the TC-RBM learns descriptive music features, such as underlying chords and typical melody transitions and dynamics. We assess the models for future prediction and compare their performance to a VMM, which is the current state of the art in melody generation. We show that both models perform significantly better than the VMM, with the Dirichlet-VMM marginally outperforming the TC-RBM. Finally, we evaluate the short order statistics of the models, using the Kullback-Leibler divergence between test sequences and model samples, and show that our proposed methods match the statistics of the music genre significantly better than the VMM.


Incorporating Discriminator in Sentence Generation: a Gibbs Sampling Method

AAAI Conferences

Generating plausible and fluent sentence with desired properties has long been a challenge. Most of the recent works use recurrent neural networks (RNNs) and their variants to predict following words given previous sequence and target label. In this paper, we propose a novel framework to generate constrained sentences via Gibbs Sampling. The candidate sentences are revised and updated iteratively, with sampled new words replacing old ones. Our experiments show the effectiveness of the proposed method to generate plausible and diverse sentences.


Conditional Restricted Boltzmann Machines for Cold Start Recommendations

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Restricted Boltzman Machines (RBMs) have been successfully used in recommender systems. However, as with most of other collaborative filtering techniques, it cannot solve cold start problems for there is no rating for a new item. In this paper, we first apply conditional RBM (CRBM) which could take extra information into account and show that CRBM could solve cold start problem very well, especially for rating prediction task. CRBM naturally combine the content and collaborative data under a single framework which could be fitted effectively. Experiments show that CRBM can be compared favourably with matrix factorization models, while hidden features learned from the former models are more easy to be interpreted.


Audio-Conditioned U-Net for Position Estimation in Full Sheet Images

arXiv.org Machine Learning

The goal of score following is to track a musical performance, usually in the form of audio, in a corresponding score representation. Established methods mainly rely on computer-readable scores in the form of MIDI or MusicXML and achieve robust and reliable tracking results. Recently, multimodal deep learning methods have been used to follow along musical performances in raw sheet images. Among the current limits of these systems is that they require a non trivial amount of preprocessing steps that unravel the raw sheet image into a single long system of staves. The current work is an attempt at removing this particular limitation. We propose an architecture capable of estimating matching score positions directly within entire unprocessed sheet images. We argue that this is a necessary first step towards a fully integrated score following system that does not rely on any preprocessing steps such as optical music recognition.


Modelling High-Dimensional Sequences with LSTM-RTRBM: Application to Polyphonic Music Generation

AAAI Conferences

We propose an automatic music generation demo based on artificial neural networks, which integrates the ability of Long Short-Term Memory (LSTM) in memorizing and retrieving useful history information, together with the advantage of Restricted Boltzmann Machine (RBM) in high dimensional data modelling. Our model can generalize to different musical styles and generate polyphonic music better than previous models.