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Learning from Mistakes -- A Framework for Neural Architecture Search

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Learning from one's mistakes is an effective human learning technique where the learners focus more on the topics where mistakes were made, so as to deepen their understanding. In this paper, we investigate if this human learning strategy can be applied in machine learning. We propose a novel machine learning method called Learning From Mistakes (LFM), wherein the learner improves its ability to learn by focusing more on the mistakes during revision. We formulate LFM as a three-stage optimization problem: 1) learner learns; 2) learner re-learns focusing on the mistakes, and; 3) learner validates its learning. We develop an efficient algorithm to solve the LFM problem. We apply the LFM framework to neural architecture search on CIFAR-10, CIFAR-100, and Imagenet. Experimental results strongly demonstrate the effectiveness of our model.


Skillearn: Machine Learning Inspired by Humans' Learning Skills

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

Humans, as the most powerful learners on the planet, have accumulated a lot of learning skills, such as learning through tests, interleaving learning, self-explanation, active recalling, to name a few. These learning skills and methodologies enable humans to learn new topics more effectively and efficiently. We are interested in investigating whether humans' learning skills can be borrowed to help machines to learn better. Specifically, we aim to formalize these skills and leverage them to train better machine learning (ML) models. To achieve this goal, we develop a general framework -- Skillearn, which provides a principled way to represent humans' learning skills mathematically and use the formally-represented skills to improve the training of ML models. In two case studies, we apply Skillearn to formalize two learning skills of humans: learning by passing tests and interleaving learning, and use the formalized skills to improve neural architecture search. Experiments on various datasets show that trained using the skills formalized by Skillearn, ML models achieve significantly better performance.


Online Selective Classification with Limited Feedback

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Motivated by applications to resource-limited and safety-critical domains, we study selective classification in the online learning model, wherein a predictor may abstain from classifying an instance. For example, this may model an adaptive decision to invoke more resources on this instance. Two salient aspects of the setting we consider are that the data may be non-realisable, due to which abstention may be a valid long-term action, and that feedback is only received when the learner abstains, which models the fact that reliable labels are only available when the resource intensive processing is invoked. Within this framework, we explore strategies that make few mistakes, while not abstaining too many times more than the best-in-hindsight error-free classifier from a given class. That is, the one that makes no mistakes, while abstaining the fewest number of times. We construct simple versioning-based schemes for any $\mu \in (0,1],$ that make most $T^\mu$ mistakes while incurring \smash{$\tilde{O}(T^{1-\mu})$} excess abstention against adaptive adversaries. We further show that this dependence on $T$ is tight, and provide illustrative experiments on realistic datasets.


Teaching Machines to Describe Images with Natural Language Feedback

Neural Information Processing Systems

Robots will eventually be part of every household. It is thus critical to enable algorithms to learn from and be guided by non-expert users. In this paper, we bring a human in the loop, and enable a human teacher to give feedback to a learning agent in the form of natural language. A descriptive sentence can provide a stronger learning signal than a numeric reward in that it can easily point to where the mistakes are and how to correct them. We focus on the problem of image captioning in which the quality of the output can easily be judged by non-experts.


Cascading Randomized Weighted Majority: A New Online Ensemble Learning Algorithm

arXiv.org Machine Learning

With the increasing volume of data in the world, the best approach for learning from this data is to exploit an online learning algorithm. Online ensemble methods are online algorithms which take advantage of an ensemble of classifiers to predict labels of data. Prediction with expert advice is a well-studied problem in the online ensemble learning literature. The Weighted Majority algorithm and the randomized weighted majority (RWM) are the most well-known solutions to this problem, aiming to converge to the best expert. Since among some expert, the best one does not necessarily have the minimum error in all regions of data space, defining specific regions and converging to the best expert in each of these regions will lead to a better result. In this paper, we aim to resolve this defect of RWM algorithms by proposing a novel online ensemble algorithm to the problem of prediction with expert advice. We propose a cascading version of RWM to achieve not only better experimental results but also a better error bound for sufficiently large datasets.