As the academic year gets under way, students will be returning to their work. But while some can happily crank out an essay against the backdrop of their favourite tunes, others look on bemused - wondering how intense concentration can be combined with the apparent distraction of music. So why is it some people can happily soundtrack their studying while others demand total silence?
Reinhold Hanning, an Auschwitz guard convicted of 170,000 counts of accessory to murder, died Tuesday – without having served a single day in prison. Hanning, who died at the age of 95, was convicted of five years in prison last year but was still in the process of appealing the verdict when he died. Hanning worked as a guard at the concentration camp from January 1942 to June 1944. And while the court found no evidence that he was a direct participant in the deaths that occurred at Auschwitz, he was convicted for his role there. Prosecutors in the case said he met prisoners as they arrived at the concentration camp and might have escorted some to their deaths at gas chambers.
After two years doctors finally were able to figure out why an 8-year-old Australian boy had high concentrations of lead in his body. It started when the unnamed boy complained of a stomachache severe enough to warrant a doctor visit. Doctors then found over 50 lead pellets trapped inside the boy's appendix--with no explanation for how the pellets got there from the digestive tract. However, the physicians didn't suspect this unusual location right away, according to a LiveScience report. After identifying foreign objects inside what looked like the boy's stomach, doctors flushed his digestive system out--but the objects remained unchanged.
Reviewing statistics from the final quarter of 2016, Tauer discovered among Jackson County workers 65 and older there was a higher concentration in retail trade; professional, scientific and technical services; real estate, rental and leasing; and other services when compared with overall figures. He added differences were only between 1 and 3.4 percentage points. Not surprisingly, there was less concentration in physically demanding construction and manufacturing sectors.
A key challenge in sequential decision problems is to determine how many samples are needed for an agent to make reliable decisions with good probabilistic guarantees. We introduce Hoeffding-like concentration inequalities that hold for a random, adaptively chosen number of samples. Our inequalities are tight under natural assumptions and can greatly simplify the analysis of common sequential decision problems. In particular, we apply them to sequential hypothesis testing, best arm identification, and sorting. The resulting algorithms rival or exceed the state of the art both theoretically and empirically.