Reinforcement Learning Models of Human Behavior: Reward Processing in Mental Disorders

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

For AI community, the development of agents that react differently to different types of rewards can enable us to understand a wide spectrum of multi-agent interactions in complex real-world socioeconomic systems. Empirically, the proposed model outperforms Q-Learning and Double Q-Learning in artificial scenarios with certain reward distributions and real-world human decision making gambling tasks. Moreover, from the behavioral modeling perspective, our parametric framework can be viewed as a first step towards a unifying computational model capturing reward processing abnormalities across multiple mental conditions and user preferences in long-term recommendation systems.


Serious head injuries nearly double your risk of dementia

New Scientist

Serious head injuries nearly double a person's risk of developing dementia. That's the message from an analysis of over 40,000 people who sustained some kind of head injury between 1986 and 2014. Half the people in the study had moderate-to-severe head injuries, which cause lesions in the brain and require a person to stay in hospital for three days or more. The other half had milder head injuries with no lesions, and were able to go home within a day. Comparing the longer-term health of these two groups revealed that the risk of developing non-Alzheimer's dementia is 90 per cent higher in those with moderate-to-severe injuries, says Rahul Raj at the University of Helsinki, Finland.


Cure For Dementia? Umbilical Cord Blood Revitalizes Brain Function, Study Finds

International Business Times

It turns out the young have something else the elderly do not after a scientific finding, which sounds like something out of a vampire fable, was published by researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine. The research, which was first published in Nature Wednesday, revealed that a protein found in umbilical cord blood from human newborns is a protein that disappears as we grow older. Researchers revealed that injecting cord blood into older mice could actually help to restore brain function. The study's findings were taken from trials with mice and revealed that the plasma of younger mice had neurological benefits on older mice, who were said to have performed better on memory tests and learning tests. "Neuroscientists have ignored it and are still ignoring it, but to me it's remarkable that something in your blood can influence the way you think," Tony Wyss-Coray, PhD, professor of neurology and neurological sciences and the study's senior author, said.


What Causes Autism? Flu Shot During Pregnancy Not Linked To Diagnosis In Children, New Study Finds

International Business Times

Receiving a flu shot while pregnant will not put a child at risk of later being diagnosed with autism. A new study published Tuesday in JAMA Pediatrics concluded that there is no link that finds the children of women who catch the flu while pregnant or receive a flu shot during pregnancy are later diagnosed with autism. The study pulled medical records from 196,929 children all born at the same Northern California hospital, Kaiser Permanente facilities, between 2000 and 2010. Of those, 3,101 were diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder, NPR reported. Although there was no direct link found in mothers who had the flu while pregnant and their child being diagnosed with autism, there was a slight increased risk for mothers who received a flu vaccine during their first trimester.


England facing 'changing health needs'

BBC News

England is facing changing health demands due to an ageing population and the NHS must quickly adapt, says Public Health England. It has compiled what it calls "the most comprehensive picture" of the nation's current health and future fitness. It shows England's population is growing in size and people are living longer but not all in good health. While smoking rates may be decreasing, diabetes, obesity, dementia and mental health issues are on the rise. The Health Profile for England report shows average life expectancy has reached 79.6 years for men and 83.2 for women.