A Generalization of the Chow-Liu Algorithm and its Application to Statistical Learning

arXiv.org Artificial Intelligence

We extend the Chow-Liu algorithm for general random variables while the previous versions only considered finite cases. In particular, this paper applies the generalization to Suzuki's learning algorithm that generates from data forests rather than trees based on the minimum description length by balancing the fitness of the data to the forest and the simplicity of the forest. As a result, we successfully obtain an algorithm when both of the Gaussian and finite random variables are present.

Gaussian-binary Restricted Boltzmann Machines on Modeling Natural Image Statistics

arXiv.org Machine Learning

We present a theoretical analysis of Gaussian-binary restricted Boltzmann machines (GRBMs) from the perspective of density models. The key aspect of this analysis is to show that GRBMs can be formulated as a constrained mixture of Gaussians, which gives a much better insight into the model's capabilities and limitations. We show that GRBMs are capable of learning meaningful features both in a two-dimensional blind source separation task and in modeling natural images. Further, we show that reported difficulties in training GRBMs are due to the failure of the training algorithm rather than the model itself. Based on our analysis we are able to propose several training recipes, which allowed successful and fast training in our experiments. Finally, we discuss the relationship of GRBMs to several modifications that have been proposed to improve the model.

k-nearest neighbor algorithm using Python


In machine learning, you may often wish to build predictors that allows to classify things into categories based on some set of associated values. For example, it is possible to provide a diagnosis to a patient based on data from previous patients. Many algorithms have been developed for automated classification, and common ones include random forests, support vector machines, Naïve Bayes classifiers, and many types of neural networks. To get a feel for how classification works, we take a simple example of a classification algorithm – k-Nearest Neighbours (kNN) – and build it from scratch in Python 2. You can use a mostly imperative style of coding, rather than a declarative/functional one with lambda functions and list comprehensions to keep things simple if you are starting with Python. Here, we will provide an introduction to the latter approach.

Abnormal Activity Recognition based on HDP-HMM Models

AAAI Conferences

Detecting abnormal activities from sensor readings is an important research problem in activity recognition. A number of different algorithms have been proposed in the past to tackle this problem. Many of the previous state-based approaches suffer from the problem of failing to decide the appropriate number of states, which are difficult to find through a trial and-error approach, in real-world applications. In this paper, we propose an accurate and flexible framework for abnormal activity recognition from sensor readings that involves less human tuning of model parameters. Our approach first applies a Hierarchical Dirichlet Process Hidden Markov Model (HDP-HMM), which supports an infinite number of states, to automatically find an appropriate number of states. We incorporate a Fisher Kernel into the One-Class Support Vector Machine (OCSVM) model to filter out the activities that are likely to be normal. Finally, we derive an abnormal activity model from the normal activity models to reduce false positive rate in an unsupervised manner. Our main contribution is that our proposed HDP-HMM models can decide the appropriate number of states automatically, and that by incorporating a Fisher Kernel into the OCSVM model, we can combine the advantages from generative model and discriminative model. We demonstrate the effectiveness of our approach by using several real-world datasets to test our algorithm’s performance.