Capsule Network Performance with Autonomous Navigation

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Capsule Networks (CapsNets) have been proposed as an alternative to Convolutional Neural Networks (CNNs). This paper showcases how CapsNets are more capable than CNNs for autonomous agent exploration of realistic scenarios. In real world navigation, rewards external to agents may be rare. In turn, reinforcement learning algorithms can struggle to form meaningful policy functions. This paper's approach Capsules Exploration Module (Caps-EM) pairs a CapsNets architecture with an Advantage Actor Critic algorithm. Other approaches for navigating sparse environments require intrinsic reward generators, such as the Intrinsic Curiosity Module (ICM) and Augmented Curiosity Modules (ACM). Caps-EM uses a more compact architecture without need for intrinsic rewards. Tested using ViZDoom, the Caps-EM uses 44% and 83% fewer trainable network parameters than the ICM and Depth-Augmented Curiosity Module (D-ACM), respectively, for 1141% and 437% average time improvement over the ICM and D-ACM, respectively, for converging to a policy function across "My Way Home" scenarios.


Examining the Benefits of Capsule Neural Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

--Capsule networks are a recently developed class of neural networks that potentially address some of the deficiencies with traditional convolutional neural networks. By replacing the standard scalar activations with vectors, and by connecting the artificial neurons in a new way, capsule networks aim to be the next great development for computer vision applications. However, in order to determine whether these networks truly operate differently than traditional networks, one must look at the differences in the capsule features. T o this end, we perform several analyses with the purpose of elucidating capsule features and determining whether they perform as described in the initial publication. First, we perform a deep visualization analysis to visually compare capsule features and convolutional neural network features. Then, we look at the ability for capsule features to encode information across the vector components and address what changes in the capsule architecture provides the most benefit. Finally, we look at how well the capsule features are able to encode instantiation parameters of class objects via visual transformations. ONVOLUTIONAL neural networks (CNNs) have long been the tools of choice when tackling computer vision problems. The spatial localization of CNN features is greatly beneficial when the networks are applied to images and videos; however, these networks also have their shortcomings. The kernels in a convolutional layer must learn to identify the presence of all relevant features in the input. Thus, transformations such as rotations and occlusion can be detrimental when the training dataset is not properly augmented. Even still, the burden of learning visual features in addition to all possible modifications of these features can be immense for a traditional CNN. Recently, a novel class of neural networks was proposed in [1] that employs the concept of a "capsule".


Novel Deep Learning Model for Traffic Sign Detection Using Capsule Networks

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Convolutional neural networks are the most widely used deep learning algorithms for traffic signal classification till date but they fail to capture pose, view, orientation of the images because of the intrinsic inability of max pooling layer.This paper proposes a novel method for Traffic sign detection using deep learning architecture called capsule networks that achieves outstanding performance on the German traffic sign dataset.Capsule network consists of capsules which are a group of neurons representing the instantiating parameters of an object like the pose and orientation by using the dynamic routing and route by agreement algorithms.unlike the previous approaches of manual feature extraction,multiple deep neural networks with many parameters,our method eliminates the manual effort and provides resistance to the spatial variances.CNNs can be fooled easily using various adversary attacks and capsule networks can overcome such attacks from the intruders and can offer more reliability in traffic sign detection for autonomous vehicles.Capsule network have achieved the state-of-the-art accuracy of 97.6% on German Traffic Sign Recognition Benchmark dataset (GTSRB).


Exploration via Flow-Based Intrinsic Rewards

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Exploration bonuses derived from the novelty of observations in an environment have become a popular approach to motivate exploration for reinforcement learning (RL) agents in the past few years. Recent methods such as curiosity-driven exploration usually estimate the novelty of new observations by the prediction errors of their system dynamics models. In this paper, we introduce the concept of optical flow estimation from the field of computer vision to the RL domain and utilize the errors from optical flow estimation to evaluate the novelty of new observations. We introduce a flow-based intrinsic curiosity module (FICM) capable of learning the motion features and understanding the observations in a more comprehensive and efficient fashion. We evaluate our method and compare it with a number of baselines on several benchmark environments, including Atari games, Super Mario Bros., and ViZDoom. Our results show that the proposed method is superior to the baselines in certain environments, especially for those featuring sophisticated moving patterns or with high-dimensional observation spaces. We further analyze the hyper-parameters used in the training phase and discuss our insights into them.


Capsule Neural Networks -- The future for autonomous vehicles

#artificialintelligence

All of us are bad at spelling (maybe you're the exception). In either case, our brains still understand that this is the word their and definitely. Let's try taking this example of a face. What if I start moving the mouth to the forehead and the eyes to the chin? It might be harder to tell, but it's still a face.