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Graph Convolutional Neural Networks for Web-Scale Recommender Systems

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recent advancements in deep neural networks for graph-structured data have led to state-of-the-art performance on recommender system benchmarks. However, making these methods practical and scalable to web-scale recommendation tasks with billions of items and hundreds of millions of users remains a challenge. Here we describe a large-scale deep recommendation engine that we developed and deployed at Pinterest. We develop a data-efficient Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) algorithm PinSage, which combines efficient random walks and graph convolutions to generate embeddings of nodes (i.e., items) that incorporate both graph structure as well as node feature information. Compared to prior GCN approaches, we develop a novel method based on highly efficient random walks to structure the convolutions and design a novel training strategy that relies on harder-and-harder training examples to improve robustness and convergence of the model. We also develop an efficient MapReduce model inference algorithm to generate embeddings using a trained model. We deploy PinSage at Pinterest and train it on 7.5 billion examples on a graph with 3 billion nodes representing pins and boards, and 18 billion edges. According to offline metrics, user studies and A/B tests, PinSage generates higher-quality recommendations than comparable deep learning and graph-based alternatives. To our knowledge, this is the largest application of deep graph embeddings to date and paves the way for a new generation of web-scale recommender systems based on graph convolutional architectures.


PinnerSage: Multi-Modal User Embedding Framework for Recommendations at Pinterest

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Latent user representations are widely adopted in the tech industry for powering personalized recommender systems. Most prior work infers a single high dimensional embedding to represent a user, which is a good starting point but falls short in delivering a full understanding of the user's interests. In this work, we introduce PinnerSage, an end-to-end recommender system that represents each user via multi-modal embeddings and leverages this rich representation of users to provides high quality personalized recommendations. PinnerSage achieves this by clustering users' actions into conceptually coherent clusters with the help of a hierarchical clustering method (Ward) and summarizes the clusters via representative pins (Medoids) for efficiency and interpretability. PinnerSage is deployed in production at Pinterest and we outline the several design decisions that makes it run seamlessly at a very large scale. We conduct several offline and online A/B experiments to show that our method significantly outperforms single embedding methods.


Deep Conversations: Lisha Li, Principal at Amplify Partners

@machinelearnbot

Lisha Li is a principal at Amplify Partners, focusing on investments in early-stage startups that leverage Machine Learning and Distributed Systems to solve problems at scale. Her Ph.D. at UC Berkeley, working with Prof David Aldous and Prof Joan Bruna, was on Deep Learning and Probability applied to the problem of clustering in graphs. She was the subject of French filmmaker Olivier Peyon's two movies: Portrait of a Mathematician Lady (an ode, perhaps to Henry James' The Portrait of a Lady) and Different Sizes of Infinity. You can follow her on twitter @lishali88. Jitendra Mudhol: Thank you for this interview.


Five lessons from building a deep neural network recommender

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recommendation algorithms are widely adopted in marketplaces to help users find the items they are looking for. The sparsity of the items by user matrix and the cold-start issue in marketplaces pose challenges for the off-the-shelf matrix factorization based recommender systems. To understand user intent and tailor recommendations to their needs, we use deep learning to explore various heterogeneous data available in marketplaces. This paper summarizes five lessons we learned from experimenting with state-of-the-art deep learning recommenders at the leading Norwegian marketplace \textit{FINN.no}. We design a hybrid recommender system that takes the user-generated contents of a marketplace (including text, images and meta attributes) and combines them with user behavior data such as page views and messages to provide recommendations for marketplace items. Among various tactics we experimented with, the following five show the best impact: staged training instead of end-to-end training, leveraging rich user behaviors beyond page views, using user behaviors as noisy labels to train embeddings, using transfer learning to solve the unbalanced data problem, and using attention mechanisms in the hybrid model. This system is currently running with around 20\% click-through-rate in production at \textit{FINN.no} and serves over one million visitors everyday.


Deep neural network marketplace recommenders in online experiments

arXiv.org Machine Learning

Recommendations are broadly used in marketplaces to match users with items relevant to their interests and needs. To understand user intent and tailor recommendations to their needs, we use deep learning to explore various heterogeneous data available in marketplaces. This paper focuses on the challenge of measuring recommender performance and summarizes the online experiment results with several promising types of deep neural network recommenders - hybrid item representation models combining features from user engagement and content, sequence-based models, and multi-armed bandit models that optimize user engagement by re-ranking proposals from multiple submodels. The recommenders are currently running in production at the leading Norwegian marketplace FINN.no and serves over one million visitors everyday.