Headlines this week proclaimed the worst-case scenarios for climate change were "debunked" and "not credible". As you might expect, things aren't that simple. The stories were sparked by a study by Peter Cox at the University of Exeter, UK, and his colleagues, who attempted to work out how much warming will result from a given increase in carbon dioxide levels. Specifically, if we doubled CO2 levels in the atmosphere and waited for the temperature to stabilise, how much would the world warm? This is known as the equilibrium climate sensitivity, and climate scientists have been trying to work it out for decades.
The Rosetta spacecraft spent 2 years orbiting comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko, most of it at distances that allowed surface characterization and monitoring at submeter scales. From December 2014 to June 2016, numerous localized changes were observed, which we attribute to cometary-specific weathering, erosion, and transient events driven by exposure to sunlight and other processes. While the localized changes suggest compositional or physical heterogeneity, their scale has not resulted in substantial alterations to the comet's landscape. This suggests that most of the major landforms were created early in the comet's current orbital configuration. They may even date from earlier if the comet had a larger volatile inventory, particularly of CO or CO2 ices, or contained amorphous ice, which could have triggered activity at greater distances from the Sun.
Artificial Neural Network (ANN) based model is a computational approach commonly used for modeling the complex relationships between input and output parameters. Prediction of the flow rate of a river is a requisite for any successful water resource management and river basin planning. In the current survey, the effectiveness of an Artificial Neural Network was examined to predict the Colorado River discharge. In this modeling process, an ANN model was used to relate the discharge of the Colorado River to such parameters as the amount of precipitation, ambient temperature and snowpack level at a specific time of the year. The model was able to precisely study the impact of climatic parameters on the flow rate of the Colorado River.
The Democratic Republic of Congo has also undergone many name changes. From 1885 to 1908 it was called (without intended irony) the Congo Free State while brutally ruled as a private venture by King Leopold II of Belgium. Later it became the Belgian Congo, then Congo-Leopoldville, and finally after its independence in 1960, the Republic of Congo. A few years later that was modified to the Democratic Republic of the Congo. In 1971 the dictator Mobutu Sese Seko named it the Republic of Zaire, perhaps because Zaire was an alternative name for the Congo River.