Recent developments in deep reinforcement learning are concerned with creating decision-making agents which can perform well in various complex domains. A particular approach which has received increasing attention is multi-agent reinforcement learning, in which multiple agents learn concurrently to coordinate their actions. In such multi-agent environments, additional learning problems arise due to the continually changing decision-making policies of agents. This paper surveys recent works that address the non-stationarity problem in multi-agent deep reinforcement learning. The surveyed methods range from modifications in the training procedure, such as centralized training, to learning representations of the opponent's policy, meta-learning, communication, and decentralized learning. The survey concludes with a list of open problems and possible lines of future research.
With the development of deep representation learning, the domain of reinforcement learning (RL) has become a powerful learning framework now capable of learning complex policies in high dimensional environments. This review summarises deep reinforcement learning (DRL) algorithms, provides a taxonomy of automated driving tasks where (D)RL methods have been employed, highlights the key challenges algorithmically as well as in terms of deployment of real world autonomous driving agents, the role of simulators in training agents, and finally methods to evaluate, test and robustifying existing solutions in RL and imitation learning.
Multiagent Reinforcement Learning (RL) solves complex tasks that require coordination with other agents through autonomous exploration of the environment. However, learning a complex task from scratch is impractical due to the huge sample complexity of RL algorithms. For this reason, reusing knowledge that can come from previous experience or other agents is indispensable to scale up multiagent RL algorithms. This survey provides a unifying view of the literature on knowledge reuse in multiagent RL. We define a taxonomy of solutions for the general knowledge reuse problem, providing a comprehensive discussion of recent progress on knowledge reuse in Multiagent Systems (MAS) and of techniques for knowledge reuse across agents (that may be actuating in a shared environment or not). We aim at encouraging the community to work towards reusing all the knowledge sources available in a MAS. For that, we provide an in-depth discussion of current lines of research and open questions.
Industry has always been in the pursuit of becoming more economically efficient and the current focus has been to reduce human labour using modern technologies. Even with cutting edge technologies, which range from packaging robots to AI for fault detection, there is still some ambiguity on the aims of some new systems, namely, whether they are automated or autonomous. In this paper we indicate the distinctions between automated and autonomous system as well as review the current literature and identify the core challenges for creating learning mechanisms of autonomous agents. We discuss using different types of extended realities, such as digital twins, to train reinforcement learning agents to learn specific tasks through generalization. Once generalization is achieved, we discuss how these can be used to develop self-learning agents. We then introduce self-play scenarios and how they can be used to teach self-learning agents through a supportive environment which focuses on how the agents can adapt to different real-world environments.
Reinforcement learning (RL) is a popular paradigm for addressing sequential decision tasks in which the agent has only limited environmental feedback. Despite many advances over the past three decades, learning in many domains still requires a large amount of interaction with the environment, which can be prohibitively expensive in realistic scenarios. To address this problem, transfer learning has been applied to reinforcement learning such that experience gained in one task can be leveraged when starting to learn the next, harder task. More recently, several lines of research have explored how tasks, or data samples themselves, can be sequenced into a curriculum for the purpose of learning a problem that may otherwise be too difficult to learn from scratch. In this article, we present a framework for curriculum learning (CL) in reinforcement learning, and use it to survey and classify existing CL methods in terms of their assumptions, capabilities, and goals. Finally, we use our framework to find open problems and suggest directions for future RL curriculum learning research.