With the recent progress in artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms, dramatic increase in computational capacities, and availability of big data necessary for training deep neural networks, a lot of AI applications became available at the market and automation tendencies started to penetrate all spheres of human activities and all industries. While the topic of AI has been getting a lot of media coverage and public attention, profound research on its socio-economic and policy effects, especially with regard to entrepreneurship, has yet to be developed. Moreover, methodological papers in artificial intelligence field have been mainly published in very technical venues and it is difficult for a broader publics to grasp the most recent developments in this area. Therefore, the purpose of this special issue is to address these shortcomings. This special issue is the first initiative to interact the technical and methodological papers in AI with papers exploring socio-economic, entrepreneurship and policy effects of AI.
Nature's spectacular inventiveness, reflected in the enormous diversity of form and function displayed by the biosphere, is a feature of life that distinguishes living most strongly from nonliving. It is, therefore, not surprising that this aspect of life should become a central focus of artificial life. We have known since Darwin that the diversity is produced dynamically, through the process of evolution; this has led life's creative productivity to be called Open-Ended Evolution (OEE) in the field. This article introduces the second of two special issues on current research in OEE and provides an overview of the contents of both special issues. Most of the work was presented at a workshop on open-ended evolution that was held as a part of the 2018 Conference on Artificial Life in Tokyo, and much of it had antecedents in two previous workshops on open-ended evolution at artificial life conferences in Cancun and York. We present a simplified categorization of OEE and summarize progress in the field as represented by the articles in this special issue.
Second, our regulatory regime makes it more difficult to build things in the United States and sell them to other countries, creating a market for foreign competitors who would otherwise not stand a chance. For years, the United States curbed exports of encryption technology and basic processors. This only led international competitors to fulfill demand, creating a market for themselves. When U.S. allies like Saudi Arabia, Pakistan, the United Arab Emirates, and Turkey needed access to unmanned aerial systems to prosecute the war on terror, these requests were delayed or denied. We have since lost almost all of these markets to Chinese exports and indigenous development.